This paper suggests that comparative economic success is influenced by political choices which themselves are linked to the competitive world system. Governments produce social order (or protection) as a territorially bounded public utility, which is seen as a productive force. Citizens invest a social order with differing degrees of legitimacy which is thus, via motivation, an important competitive resource. A multiple regression design covering 18 Western core societies over the postwar era is used to test whether legitimacy, operationalized as relative absence of mass political protest, has an effect on comparative overall economic performance once initial wealth, absolute and relative size of government and membership in trading blocs are controlled for. We find robust empirical evidence for a positive impact of legitimacy on growth in the postwar era. The study thus suggests additional support for the theory of the 'world market for protection', developed elsewhere to explain long-term economic success and societal convergence at the core of the world system.
Educational opportunities, and the specific structures of educational systems, are as consequential for mobility in labor markets as are the attributes of the individuals who make careers in those markets. The conceptual and empirical challenge is to understand how individual and environmental factors interactively affect mobility processes. The argument is developed in three steps. First, a typology for the classification of educational systems is presented. According to this typology, educational systems can be distinguished along the criteria of 'standardization' (the provision of equal educational standards nationwide) and 'stratification' (the selection procedures within the systems). Second, general hypotheses are stated on how educational system characteristics shape labor market outcomes. With a stratified educational system, occupational status is closely determined by individual educational attainment; with an unstratified system, occupational status is less determined by educational attainment. On the other hand, with a standardized system, job changes occur less frequently than with an unstandardized system. Third, empirical evidence is provided. The educational systems of Norway, West Germany and the United States are evaluated according to the typology of standardization and stratification. The connection of educational system attributes and labor market outcomes is analyzed on the basis of retrospective life history data from the United States, Norway and West Germany.
Typologies play an important role in sociological theory and research. Basic to the use of (ideal) types is the notion that a subject's overt behavior can be conceived of as governed by his/her belonging or closeness to a particular underlying pure type. Many statistical techniques are in use to detect or construct these fundamental types, especially factor analysis. Much less attention has been paid to the possibilities that latent class analysis has to offer. Through an elaborate example, it is shown that the basic ideas of latent class analysis correspond eminently well with the use social scientists make of (ideal) types. Several important extensions of the basic latent class model along with significant new developments are discussed.
The approach of 'value of children' studies is extended to a general rational choice model of intergenerational relationships, including fertility behavior as well as normative orientations to sex-roles, educational attitudes, early child-care and socialization practices. This model is empirically tested by a cross-cultural comparison which includes five groups of families: (i) West German families; (ii) Turkish migrant families of the second generation which were constituted after migration to West Germany; (iii) Turkish migrant families of the first generation, for which marriage took place before migration; (iv) Turkish re-immigrant families, which returned after a stay in West Germany to Turkey; (v) Turkish families. In the mother tongue interview with fathers or mothers a specific 'target child' was chosen, whose age, sex and birth place is known. The parent was asked about his/her educational aims and attitudes and early child care and socialization practices in relation to this child. Empirical results are presented to show similarities and differences for the subpopulations under consideration. These data show the impact of socio-structural conditions on various levels, including cross-cultural comparisons as well as comparisons of immediate living conditions, in combination with individual options as indicated by education and status of family members, on the constitution of specific intergenerational relationships. They support the extension of the 'value of children' approach to parent-child relationships in general.
This paper reports some of the central findings of a cross-sectional analysis of determinants of trade union membership in West Germany. Representative surveys are available for the periods 1976 to 1979 and 1980 to 1984. The results to a logistic regression model are presented separately for each period. Size of firm, union membership of works councillors, and employment in public service were found to be important 'context variables' which influence an individual's propensity to join the union. Other variables such as sex, education, and political partisanship (Green Party) also have a significant influence on trade union membership and are discussed here in detail.
The problem raised in this article is how to conceptualize and measure the redistributive effects of the public sector. First, a formal model is developed. The model is used to illuminate some logical relationships between basic variables affecting distribution of income. Secondly, the model is used for the construction of various empirical indicators of the redistributive effects of the public sector. Thirdly, empirical illustrations are given from Sweden in 1967 and 1980. The conclusion is that the circulation of money and the distribution of transfers 'in kind' through the public sector have equalizing net effects. The poorest half of the population has its income increased by 32 per cent in 1967 and 75 per cent in 1980 through transfers from the rich half, via the public sector; workers have their income increased by 10 per cent in 1967 and by 16 per cent in 1980 through transfers from the other classes. The increase in redistributive effect of the public sector between these two years is mainly due to the increase in its size and not to a more pronounced distributional profile.
Inglehart's thesis of the 'Silent Revolution' states that the priorities of Western publics have gradually shifted from materialist toward postmaterialist values. An important aspect of this thesis is the socialization hypothesis, predicting that one's (post)-materialist values are stable during adulthood. This paper tests this hypothesis using panel data for the United States, Germany and the Netherlands. For this purpose several multiple indicator two-wave models are developed including (i) a correction for the dependency between the indicators (because of the ranking of the items) and (ii) item specific factors. Application of these models to the data indicates a strong stability of postmaterialist values during adulthood, especially for the United States and the Netherlands. The implications of the findings are discussed.
This paper examines the individual distribution of recurrent unemployment using longitudinal data on unemployed men in West Germany between 1977 and 1982. Among the possible reasons for recurrent unemployment, this report discusses seasonal factors, labor market segmentation, unstable working careers among teenagers and state dependence. Besides that, various personal characteristics of the respondents as well as economic conditions of local labor markets are controlled for. A multivariate model based on count data and the Poisson distribution is used to test the relative importance of each factor. The final model shows that recurrent unemployment can be explained by segmentation indicators, state dependence, and one personal characteristic, vocational training. After these characteristics have been controlled, no other of the available variables significantly improves prediction. Notably, age and seasonal factors do not add any further insights. Also, health problems and long unemployment duration are not as good predictors for recurrent unemployment as they are for the classical target group of labor market policy, the hard-to-place unemployed.
This paper is concerned with the operation of Junior Secondary Schools in France. Students' school careers have been analysed in three sequential and cumulative components: student progress in learning in the junior secondary school, student grading by teachers, and student streaming, i.e., admission, or not, into a general form 3. For each of the three mechanisms described above, the authors examine whether they are influenced by the schooling context, which schooling context (school and/or classroom), and which characteristics of those contexts it is relevant to consider. Finally, they focus on the process by which the large social inequalities visible after the pupils have been streamed (at the end of form 2) have been generated.
The paper addresses the impact which changes in economy, employment structure, and politics have had on West German trade unions in the post-war period. Overall there has been a remarkable stability of union membership and policies. This applies in particular to the very slight effect which business cycles have exerted. In contrast, however, membership developments have been more dependent on changes in the distribution of economic and political power. Unions have not adapted to transformation of the employment structure but the losses of members caused by this has been more or less compensated by gains in shrinking segments of the labour force. Therefore, stability of membership levels has been possible even though adaptation of recruitment strategies has not been successful.
The paper discusses the empirical testability of general deterrence. The data used are Swedish time series on (i) convictions for theft 1841-1985 and (ii) reported theft in Stockholm 1866-1985. It is argued on theoretical and empirical grounds that a time series approach using the data's annual variations is not to be recommended for research on general deterrence on the aggregate level. Primarily, the reasons are (i) that data on risk experienced are lacking, and (ii) that the variables' annual variations usually are too small. Shifting the focus from deterrent effects on individuals to the aggregated effects of the administration of criminal justice, and analyzing the data's secular trends and interruptions of trends, it is concluded that the Swedish data do not lend support to the general deterrence hypothesis in a longitudinal perspective.
This paper empirically examines four hypotheses related to the relationship between class structure and status hierarchies in contemporary Japan. The homogeneity hypothesis claims that there are no longer any fundamental differences in life styles among different classes in contemporary Japan and that the status composition of various classes is highly homogeneous. The bipolarity hypothesis suggests that the basis of the distribution of various status characteristics is polarised along the lines of the ownership of the means of production and that classes are divided into two basic groups with respect to their status attributes. The status inconsistency hypothesis predicts that various status characteristics of classes are inconsistent so that classes cannot be characterised by consistently high or low status attributes. The dual structure hypothesis suggests that the distribution of status attributes is further stratified by firm size among Japanese employees. The empirical analysis supports the dual structure hypothesis. Japanese employees in large firms tend to have better status attributes than those in small and medium-sized firms even though they occupy the same class positions. The bipolarity and the status inconsistency hypotheses also receive partial support from the data. Bipolarity is marked at the extremes of Japanese class structure while classes which occupy partially dominant locations in social relations of production tend to show status inconsistency.
Forschungsmethode: empirisch, Sekundaeranalyse, Befragung. In diesem Beitrag werden Auswirkungen von Arbeitsbedingungen und Arbeitsertraegen auf Freizeitgestaltung einschliesslich politisch und sozialen Aktivitaeten und die geistige und physische Gesundheit der Individuen untersucht. Die Analyse stuetzt sich auf Daten der Erhebung ueber den schwedischen Lebensstandard im Jahr 1981. (IAB).
This paper constructs a time-series model of trade union growth and decline in the Federal Republic of Germany (1955-1986) by testing and combining eleven economic and socio-political hypotheses prevalent in the German and international trade union literature. The model employs wages, prices, unemployment, employment, and the proportion of foreigners in the workforce as explanatory variables. It proves to be satisfactory when judged in terms of usual statistical criteria such as overall goodness of fit, and signs, magnitudes, and significance of the estimated regression coefficients, as well as in terms of its structural stability, data sensitivity, and predictive ability.