The historical background & consequences of the Native Land Husbandry Act passed in southern Rhodesia in 1951 are examined. This act derived from a policy of separating the Ur & Ru African populations, in contrast to the traditional pattern of Ur-Ru ties. The policy aimed at creation of a Ru Mc. Overcrowding of the reserves made land allocation difficult, & created a situation in which few plots were likely to be large enough to allow competitive production for the market. The availability of land in Native Purchase Areas since 1930 has done a great deal to reduce political tensions. The current situation is one in which a Ru Mc could be created, though as yet official policy has not achieved this aim. W. H. Stoddard.
A historical review of policies that affected the structure & distribution of population during Rhodesia's development as a white man's country provides a perspective for an analysis of current population problems, leading to discussion of policy & strategy for Zimbabwe whereby these fundamental problems might be alleviated or resolved. Attention is focused on: the very formal structure of Rhodesia's deeply divided society & on relationships between its interdependent but rival components; on problems created by rapid population growth, especially in Ru areas where excessive pressures on mediocre resources create a conservation hazard & preclude economic progress; & on the failure to integrate Ru & Ur policies with respect to population. Five basic objectives are identified: (1) to raise the standard of living & quality of life of society as a whole; (2) to seek peace & understanding throughout society; (3) to conserve & enhance the nation's natural heritage; (4) to reduce the rate of population growth; & (5) to improve the spatial distribution of population in relation to natural & social resources & development prospects. Policy options & several specific measures toward these ends are discussed in the context of Zimbabwe's independence. 4 Figures. AA.
The debate over Tanzanian development turns on the question of whether a socialist or capitalist system is being created. In assessing the success or failure of the Tanzanian experiment, the criteria used are drawn from the objectives set out in the Arusha declaration: to eschew foreign aid; to nationalize the major means of production & exchange; to rely on surplus generated by Ru production, based on ujamaa villages; & to forge an independent course of socialist development. A review of these goals indicates that they have not been achieved. Tanzanian development is increasingly exhibiting the pattern & problems of other peripheral capitalist countries. To establish the extent & nature of the development of capitalism in Tanzania, a review of SC formation is undertaken. Issue is taken with established positions (eg, of H. U. E. Thoden Van Velzen & Issa G. Shivji) asserting that both a kulak class & a ruling class already exist in Tanzania, & that capitalism is firmly established. It is argued that the process of SC formation is both less complete & more complex than these accounts suggest. Progressive & successful aspects of ujamaa socialism give Tanzania features unusual for a peripheral capitalist country. Contradictions continue to exist, & the present society must be reviewed as one in a state of transition. Modified AA.