Controlling in chickpea crop is a big challenge for the grower in the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Keeping in view the yield losses due to weeds a research was conducted at Ahmadwala Research Station “District Karak” to control to Herbicides, mulches and allelopathic weed extracts were evaluated during the experiment. The experiment was repeated thrice using Randomized Complete Block design with Chattan cultivar. The weed control treatments Viz. Stomp 330 EC (Pre) @ 2.5 L ha , Fenoxaprop- -ethyl, Bromoxynil +MCPA (Tank mixture of herbicides), Starane-M, Eucalyptus leaves as mulch, wheat straw as mulch, allelopathic extract ( ) + Stomp, allelopathic extract, allelopathic extract were tested and compare with the control treatment during the experiment. The data was recorded on density m before and after treatment application, plant height, crude protein, crude fats, biological yield, and seed yield. The level of significance of all the treatments was (0.05). The results indicated that the minimum density was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC (4.74 m ) followed by herbicide Fenoxaprop- -ethyl 6.9 EC (10.87 m ). The maximum density was found in the control plots (81.64 m ) which were left undisturbed. Among the chickpea yield components, the maximum plant height at maturity (48.98 cm) was recorded for Stomp 330 EC the lowest plant height was recorded for control plot. The maximum crude protein (17.68), crude fat (2.93) and oil content was (5.92%) was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC and the minimum was found in the control plots. Similarly, the maximum biological yield (4058.7 kg ha ) and seed yield (1282 kg ha ) were recorded in Stomp 330 EC treated plots as biological and grain yield was observed for control plot. Therefore, it is recommended that using herbicides Stomp 330 EC and Fenoxaprop -ethyl is one of the effective weed control strategies for control of in chickpea growing areas.
(Britton & Rose) D.R. Hunt and Areces (Cactaceae) are valuable Cuban natural heritage plants from ophiolite (serpentine) soils that are in Critical Danger of extinction. The study on was conducted in Matamoros and that of in La Ceja between May 2017 and July 2017, both in Holguín province. Samples in collections were also taken. The appearance of fungi somatic and reproductive structures was induced through wet chamber technique and isolation. Fungi were identified using taxonomic keys. Symptoms in consist of rotten soft roots, while displays yellow spots followed by brown to blackish lesions with brown centers. Cacti death is the result of those infections. Pathogenicity tests showed that in , the fungi responsible for the symptoms are Schltdl. (or a complex), (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc and sp. In , causes the witnessed anthracnose in stems in both habitats. These fungi constitute a severe threat in natural habitat more for than for Results suggest that roots are the most vulnerable part of and stems appear to be more sensitive in can infect both cacti, but no symptoms of illness have been seen either or . Infection similarities seen both in nature and in collections could be because of inappropriate horticultural practices. Other fungi found are Fresenius, van Tieghem sp., sp., sp. and sp. All fungi found in this study are new records for both hosts in Cuba. The results of this research allow to solve problems found in natural habitat and in collections. In addition, results suggest to collectors not to remove and use soil from the natural habitat, unless it is properly sterilized.
Ongoing climate change, characterized by winter warming, snow cover decline and extreme weather events, is changing terrestrial ecosystem processes in high altitude and latitude regions. Winter soil processes could be particularly sensitive to climate change. In fact, winter warming and snow cover decline are interdependent in cold biomes, and have a synergistic effect on soil processes. Soil microorganisms not only play crucial roles in material cycling and energy flow, but also act as sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. However, little information is available on the effect of winter warming on forest soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The alpine and subalpine forest ecosystems on the eastern Tibet Plateau have important roles in conserving soil, holding water, and maintaining biodiversity. To understand the changes in AOB and AOA communities under climate change scenarios, an altitudinal gradient experiment in combination with soil column transplanting was conducted at the Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, which is situated in the Bipeng Valley of Lixian County, Sichuan, China. Thirty intact soil columns under an alpine forest at an altitude of 3582 m were transplanted and incubated at 3298 m and 3023 m forest sites, respectively. Compared with the 3582 m, we expected air temperature increases of 2 °C and 4 °C at the 3298 m and 3023 m, respectively. However, the temperatures in the soil organic layer (OL) and mineral soil layer (ML) increased by 0.27 °C and 0.13 °C, respectively, at 3023 m and − 0.36 °C and − 0.35 °C at 3298 m. Based on a previous study and with simultaneous monitoring of soil temperature, the abundances of AOB and AOA communities in both the OL and ML were measured by qPCR in December 2010 (i.e., the onset of the frozen soil period) and March 2011 (i.e., the late frozen soil period). The soil columns incubated at 3023 m had relatively higher AOB abundances and lower AOA/AOB ratios than those at 3298 m, while higher AOA abundances and AOA/AOB ratios were observed at 3298 m. The abundance of the microbial community at the late frozen period was higher than that at the onset of frozen soil, and the changes in microbial community abundance at the late frozen period were more substantial. Furthermore, the nitrate nitrogen (N) concentrations in both the OL and ML were significantly higher than ammonia N concentrations, implying that soil nitrate N is the primary component of the inorganic N pool in the alpine forest ecosystem. Additionally, the responses of AOA and AOB in the soil OL to soil column transplanting were more sensitive than the responses of those in ML. In conclusion, climate warming alters the abundance of the ammonia-oxidizing microbial community in the alpine forest ecosystem, which, in turn, might affect N cycling.
Variations in floral traits and floral structures influence plant mating systems. produces large, showy flowers typical of an outcrossing species, yet flowers are autonomously self-pollinated. In this study, we measured floral morphology, breeding system and outcrossing rate estimated by ISSR markers. Results indicate that two types of flowers were observed in , and the type I with bigger petals appears to be much more visible to pollinators, demonstrated by than type II flowers with smaller petals. The flowers with hand pollination were closed 1 h earlier than intact flowers, whether they were type I or II. The relationship between the amount of pollen deposited on the stigma and the number of seeds per capsule was highly significant, and 80 or more pollens per flower can make the mean number of seeds (mean = 37) in . Delayed selfing in did not provide a large contribution to seed production, since reproductive assurance were only 0.025. However, successful reproduction of 72.5% flowers in the absence of pollinators suggested that selfing provides reproductive assurance during seasons, in which pollinators were limiting. The multilocus outcrossing rates in different populations varied from 0.982 to 1.200, with a mean of 1.116. Our data provide an empirical demonstration of a predominantly outcrossing species with potential delayed selfing when pollinators are absent or scarce.
A new strain of Manila clam with orange shell color was produced after selection within a full-sib family for two generations. In the present study, the shell length, height, and width, and the live body weight of the orange strain were measured, and their correlation coefficients were calculated. The shell morphological traits were used as independent variables, and the live body weight was used as the dependent variable for calculating the path coefficients, correlation index, and determination coefficients. The results showed that the correlation coefficients between each shell morphological trait and the live body weight were all highly significant ( < 0.01). The correlation indices ( ) of morphological traits against the live body weight of clams were larger than 0.85, indicating that the morphology traits were the main factors affecting the body weight. Multiple regression equations were obtained to estimate shell length (cm), shell height (cm), and shell width (cm) against live body weight (g): = − 2.62 + 0.34 + 0.145 , ( < 0.05, < 0.05). The results suggest that the shell length could be used as the main trait for selective breeding and could indirectly make a large improvement in the weight trait.
Present study measures the impact of forest disturbance on population structure and regeneration status of a Himalayan banj oak ( ) forest at different aspects and altitudes. The whole study was carried out by placing 300 systematically selected sample plots in banj oak forest. The study revealed that moderately disturbed forest patches were present in all elevation ranges and both north and south facing aspects whereas most of the highly disturbed patches were situated near middle and lower stretches of forests or close to habitations. Density of primary diameter class (5–15 cm) was recorded highest in moderately disturbed zone in upper elevation ranges and north facing aspect and ‘fair’ category of regeneration was most frequent in all elevation ranges and aspects. The paper concludes a positive effect of mid-level disturbance on plant community for better regeneration and study recommends a minimum resource extraction and silvicultural practices in banj-oak belt of Himalaya for a minimum canopy opening which not only be able to provide biomass to local communities for their daily needs but also would be able to maintain and improve forest health.
L. is one of the famous and old species belonging to Family Punicaceae. The lipoidal and natural pigment extracts of the pomegranate were screened for their antimicrobial activity against nine different microbial pathogens. Three different doses of each extract (50, 100 and 150 μl) at three different contact times (15, 30 and 60 min) were examined. Results can be cleared that, all tested microbial pathogens were inhibited by 150 μl of both extracts at 60 min. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of n-hexane extract was powerful than the pigment extract. Also, the quantitative evaluation of the pigments in the leaves was performed using spectroscopical and HPLC analyses, carotenoids and chlorophylls content of L. leaves were spectroscopically determined (mg/g) as 6.7 ± 0.214 and 4.9 ± 0.251, respectively. Chlorophyll and were 2.33 ± 0.014 and 1.51 ± 0.023, respectively. HPLC analysis of lutein and β-carotene were investigated as 3.652 and 1.915 mg/g. GC/MS analysis of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fraction of n-hexane extract was carried out and α-amyrin acetate, ergosterol, and α-tocopherol were isolated, purified and identified using different spectroscopical methods. Toxicity assessment demonstrated their high biocompatibility since no toxic effect was recorded.
Crop residue-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in soil carbon (C) cycling. To investigate the effects of maize residue-derived DOM and urea additions on the native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and soil net C balance a pot experiment was carried out during the winter wheat growing season in the North China Plain (NCP). The results showed that adding maize residue-derived DOM alone (RDOM) or together with urea (RDOM + N) accelerated the decomposition of native SOC and resulted in a net SOC loss. The net loss of SOC was 3.90 ± 0.61 and 3.53 ± 0.48 g C m in RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. The stimulatory effect of per unit DOM-C addition on the native SOC decomposition was 0.25 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.07 for the RDOM and RDOM + N treatments, respectively. Increases in the microbial biomass and the activity of β-glucosidase, invertase and cellobiohydrolase as well as soil mineral N content were responsible for a more intense priming effect in DOM-amended soils. The positive relationship between primed soil C and soil available N ( = 0.76, < 0.05) suggested that the stimulation of decomposition of native SOC by DOM addition would be enhanced by nitrogen fertilizer application.
In the recent years using non-traditional sources, . . saline water in irrigation becomes essential. Overcoming the toxic effects of salinity stress and improving salt tolerance is consider one of the challenges for enhancing germination, seedling characters and biochemical analysis. Therefore, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the response of seven Egyptian flax cultivars . . (Giza 9, Giza 10, Giza 11, Giza 12, Sakha 2, Sakha 5 and Sakha 6) germinated under five salinity stress . . (control, 3, 6, 9 and 12 dS m ) at Research Institute of Nyiregyhaza using Factorial Experimental in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. The following results were recorded: Tested Egyptian flax cultivars significantly varied for germination characters, seedling properties and chemical analysis. Giza 11 exceeded recorded the maximum values of germination and seedling characters, potassium and proline content compared with the other studied cultivars. Increasing salinity stress up to 12 dS m significantly affected germination characters, seedlings parameters and chemical analysis. In general, Giza 11 cultivar substantiated best at high level of salinity stress compared with other studied cultivars. Furthermore, produced the lowest values of Na content.
A restoration program for the control of cyanobacterial blooms and the re-establishment of submerged macrophytes was conducted in Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu since 2003. The effect of this ecological projects on plankton community and water quality, and factors regulating phytoplankton community were investigated in 2005. In general, some improvements of water quality occurred in the ecological restoration region, especially in the region of restoring aquatic macrophytes, where we detected significant reduction of nutrients. However, it seems the abundance of phytoplankton cannot be effectively control by the present ecological engineering. The phytoplankton abundance was high in the target restoration zone. Results of CCA and correlation analysis indicate that the phytoplankton community was mainly controlled by physico-chemical factors. Cyanobacteria species were positively related with pH, temperature, TP and TSS, while negatively related with TN, TN/TP and conductivity. The most discriminant variable was TN/TP, which explained 15% of the total variance of phytoplankton. However, TN was more important for the fluctuation of TN/TP than TP. It suggested that TN may be the ultimate factor controlling the phytoplankton community in Lake Taihu. Variation partitioning analysis showed that the pure contribution of crustacean was low for the variation of phytoplankton, suggesting that top-down control by crustacean zooplankton was weak in Lake Taihu. In general, this study suggested the reduction of nutrient load should be more important than top-down control using zooplankton for the ecosystem restoration in Lake Taihu.
A field trail was carried out at the University of Agriculture Peshawar during spring, 2013 in order to evaluate the effect of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and various planting times on the growth and development of tomato. The main objective of the research work was to investigate the best sowing time for tomato in combination with suitable dose of P fertilizer in order to get maximum yield of tomato in the climatic conditions of Peshawar. RCB Design with split plot arrangements was used in the trail. The main factor (phosphorous levels of 0, 90, 110, 130) was allotted to main plots while sowing dates in sub plots. A total twelve treatment were replicated thrice. Maximum days to flowering (39.583 days) and fruiting (46.167 days) obtained in the late sowing. Minimum days to flowering (39), minimum days to fruiting (38.778 days) were taken by the early sowing. Maximum number of branches (27.778), maximum fruit length (6.0222), maximum fruit with (6.1667), maximum fruit yield (24.653 tons ha ) was produced when the plot fertilize with 130 kg P ha . Maximum number of fruit plant (29.778) were produced with application of 130 kg P ha , minimum number of fruits (23.667 cm), fruit width (3.778 cm), fruit length (4.3667 cm), plant height (56.300 cm) were obtained from the controlled treatment. Among the various treatment studied in experiment, it is concluded that early planting of the tomato in the summer season i.e. in the start of March and the use of higher dose of P (130 kg P ha ) is very beneficial for the excellent growth, development and yield of tomato crop.
Ethnobotanical and ecological study of plants is very important in understanding the culture of a society and it provides a base for further study on scientific lines. This paper, the use of medicinal plants and their role in the treatment of different diseases have been duly observed and noted in Tehsil Timergara. The survey was carried out from September 2014 to October 2016. During this survey, a total of 16 trips with 4 in each season were carried out to collect data. A total of 115 respondents were interviewed through questionnaires regarding the available medicinal plants; most of the respondents were 65 to 80 years old. The obtained ethnobotanical data was then analyzed by Frequency Citation (FC), Relative Frequency Citation index (RFC), and Use Value index (UV) to find the most common plants species used for various diseases. The local community of the study area, 59 plant species belonging to 39 genera, 28 families for different medicinal purposes. During the survey 38 species were herbs, 6 shrubs, and 15 trees. Leaf and whole plants were most frequently used parts in making of medicine while 30% of the whole plant was used in the ethnobotanical uses. A total of 46 plants showed important value in the ethnomedicinal purpose, in which the highest number of species (11) were used for chest problem particularly in a cough, as laxatives (4) and in asthma (5 species), 14 species were used as fuel which is also an important feature of the plants. Soil analysis of five collection area is studied. The current result of RFC and UV shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.
Short-season fallow with legumes and/or grasses can restore the soil organic C and nitrogen (N) and improve soil structure. In this study, we accessed the effects of 2-season legume and grass fallow on structural properties and C/N relationships in aggregates of a sandy loam soil. Two legumes ( and ), and two grasses (Guinea grass ( ) and goose grass ( ) were used. Results showed that and increased soil total porosity and reduced soil bulk densities, while goose grass increased bulk density and reduced total porosity of the soils at 0–15 and 15–30 cm depths. Guinea grass significantly increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity (50.4 cm h ) and water holding capacity of the soils. Aggregates, 4.75 to 0.5 mm were greater in Guinea grass and least in goose grass fallowed soils. increased macro-aggregates at 0–15 cm soils by 48%, and mean weight diameter (MWD) by 44%. Organic carbon in 0.5–0.25 mm and <0.25 mm aggregate sizes was higher in Guinea grass soils. Generally, grasses had 4-fold increases of C:N contents in dry aggregates. In conclusion, short-season fallow with Guinea grass, and , increased soil C and N and protected them from losses in stable aggregates.
In present study, the capabilities of multiple linear regression (MLR) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions (PTFs) for estimating geometric mean diameter (GMD) and mean weight diameter (MWD), from routine soil properties and combination of routine soil properties and fractal dimension of aggregates were evaluated. For this reason 101 samples were collected form the Northwest of Iran and some their properties such as soil texture, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and organic matter (OM), fractal dimension of aggregates between number-diameter (Dn), mass-diameter (Dmt), and bulk density-diameter (Dmy) were determined and used as an input variables for determining of mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) by MLR and ANFIS PTFs. Results showed that the application of fractal dimension of aggregates as a predictor in two methods improved the accuracy of PTFs. As well as, results showed that ANFIS have greater potential for determination of the relationships between soil aggregate stability indices and other soil properties in compared with MLR. Therefore using of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in developing pedotransfer functions is recommended.
is important forest tree species in southern China, and its successive plantations resulted in degradation of soil fertility in pure stands, causing decline in forest productivity. How to improve productivity in pure stands is a tough task. Usage of mycorrhizal fungi might be a plausible access to the task. The objective is to study the possibility of the endophytic fungus (named formerly as ) in culture of . Seeds were sowed in plastic pots with river sand. When seedlings had two true leaves, hyphae suspension solution of was added to near the roots of seedlings in each plastic pot. Such pots with seedlings were placed in a greenhouse and normal management was carried out for the seedlings. Symbiosis effects on root development, nutrition uptake and allocation, and biomass accumulation of seedlings under low phosphate were investigated. The results showed that could symbiose with The symbiosis did not result in significant changes in root system architecture under low phosphate, but significantly increased nitrogen and phosphorus levels in leaves under low phosphate. Although the symbiosis did not significantly increased nitrogen allocation in leaves under low phosphate, it significantly increased phosphorus allocation in leaves. The interaction between and resulted in increase in total biomass under low phosphate and changes in biomass allocation between shoots and roots. The results suggested that helps host plants to absorb more nutrients under low phosphate and to allocate more nitrogen and phosphate to leaves, promoting plant growth; the fungus might be used in pure stands of because of its large-scaled axenic culture.
L., commonly known as referred in the Ayurveda as a wonderful plant for strengthening body constitutions, has been recognized as a threatened plant of Assam, India. Traditionally, beads, its bark and leaves are used to cure various ailments like stress, anxiety, depression, nerve pain, epilepsy, migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. The population stock of the species has been depleting very fast in its natural habitat due to rapid habitat fragmentation and changing climate altering the structural and functional integrity of the plant. Hence, conservation of L. with proper scientific investigation to prevent from extinction in its wild habitat is urgently needed. The present study was emphasized with the specific objectives to study the distribution and population status, predication of suitable sites through ENM, standardization of macropropagation methods and reinforcement/reintroduction into the suitable wild habitat to improve conservation status. In the present investigation L. was reported in few locations of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh with population sizes of mean density, frequency of occurrence and abundance in relation to other associated species as 0.333, 13.922 and 2.215 respectively. For improving the conservation status, potential area and habitat for reinforcement was predicted using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) distribution modelling algorithm. Subsequently, macropropagation protocol was standardized through seed germination and air-layering; saplings were raised and 1050 saplings were reintroduced to the wild habitats selected on the basis of ecological niche modelling. Survival rate was found significantly high as 68%, suggesting that our approach is effective for changing population status and to conserve the plant.
The use of 20% plant leaves extracts included fig ( ) and olive ( ) and their mixture 1:1 as an amendment in the solid agar medium (PDA) is beneficial to promote the growth of four mycelial mushrooms. These are (Grey oyster mushroom), (Yellow oyster mushroom), (Turkey Tail mushroom), and (Reishi mushroom). showed better growth reached 67 mm significantly ( < 0.05) on OC medium after five days. While, recorded the lowest growth on FC medium reached 35.3 mm. Induction percentage of mycelial growth is changing according to the type of medium and species of fungus. In general, FOH medium exhibited the best percentage of induction was 14.89%, followed 12.48% and 9.43% by OH and OC media, while the lower percentages were 5.02% and 5.12% on FH and FC media, respectively. FC medium did not induce growth of and . The sterilization by Autoclave and Millipore filter showed different induction percentages. Finally, the extracts of fig and olive were useful to add in the culture media to improve the growth of mycelial mushroom .
To improve the management and protection strategies of , the effect of sprouting on the population and spatial distribution pattern was explored. Environmental conditions of the community, tree diameter at breast height ( ), and height of each individual tree were obtained using a contiguous grid quadrate method in four plots of deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved forests in Dapan Mountain National Nature Research in Zhejiang, China with the largest distribution area of . The principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the sprouting ability of is strongly related to the degrees of rock bareness, altitude, and slope. The analysis of the population structures showed that the population of group A only with parental trees was in decline due to a lack of seedlings and saplings, whereas the population of group B with both parental trees and sprouts (group B) was increasing. Groups A and B differed in their spatial distribution patterns in the plot 2, with group A showing a random distribution and group B displaying an aggregated distribution. Because the optimum block scale was between 16 m and 32 m , analyses of the spatial pattern and dynamics of the spatial pattern at 25 m could accurately reflect the true distribution. The population of is small, and the spatial patterns of the population indicated an aggregated distribution with the exception of plot 2 of group A. Plot 2 showed significant environmental deterioration from nearby rocks and ravines, and as a result, a number of small trees died from root exposure, which led to a random distribution of plot 2. The effects of sprouting should be considered when studying the population and spatial patterns of plants.