In recognition of the fact that orang-utans (Pongo spp.) are severely threatened, a meeting of orangutan experts and conservationists, representatives of national and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations, and other stakeholders, was converted in Jakarta, Indonesia, in January 2004. Prior to this meeting we surveyed all large areas for which orang-utan population status was unknown. Compilation of all survey data produced a comprehensive Picture of orang-utan distribution on both Borneo and Sumatra. These results indicate that in 2004 there were c. 6,500 P. abehii remaining on Sumatra and at least 54,000 P. pygniaeus on Borneo. Extrapolating to 2008 on the basis of forest loss on both islands Suggests the estimate for Borneo Could be 10% too high but that for Sumatra is probably still relatively accurate because forest loss in orang-utan habitat has been low during the conflict in Aceh, where most P. abehi Occur. When those population sizes are compared to known historical sizes it is clear that the Sumatran orang-utan is in rapid decline, and unless extraordinary efforts are made soon, it could become the first great ape species to go extinct. In contrast, Our results indicate there are more and larger populations of Bornean orang-utans than previously known. Although these revised estimates for Borneo are encouraging, forest loss and associated loss of orang-utans are occurring at an alarming rate, and Suggest that recent reductions of Bornean orang-utan populations have been far more severe than previously supposed. Nevertheless, although orang-utans on both islands are Under threat, we highlight some reasons for cautious optimism for their long-term conservation.
The increasing number of invasive species and their effects on wildlife conservation, together with a lack of public resources, make it necessary to prioritize management actions. In practice, management decisions are often reached on the basis of subjective reasoning rather than scientific evidence. To develop a more evidence-based and efficient management of biological invasions, decision tools (e.g. multi-criteria frameworks) that help managers prioritize actions most efficiently are key. In this paper we review to what degree such decision tools are currently available. We used a literature search to identify relevant studies. Our analysis indicates that available studies are largely biased towards risk analysis and that only a few authors have proposed cost-benefit or multi-criteria frameworks for decision making. Until now, these frameworks have only been applied at limited regional scales but they could be applied more widely. Our review also shows critical biases in the geographical focus, habitats, and taxonomic groups of available studies. Most studies have focused on Europe, North America or Australia; other continents have largely been ignored. The majority of studies have focused on terrestrial plants; other habitats and taxonomic groups have been poorly covered. Most studies have focused on a single invasive species but practical management tools should consider a wide variety of invaders. We conclude with suggestions for developing improved decision tools.
Over the past decade conservation groups have put considerable effort into educating consumers and changing patterns of household consumption. Many groups aiming to reduce overfishing and encourage sustainable fishing practices have turned to new market-based tools, including consumer awareness campaigns and seafood certification schemes (e.g. the Marine Stewardship Council) that have been well received by the fishing and fish marketing industries and by the public in many western countries. Here, we review difficulties that may impede further progress, such as consumer confusion, lack of traceability and a lack of demonstrably improved conservation status for the fish that are meant to be protected. Despite these issues, market-based initiatives may have a place in fisheries conservation in raising awareness among consumers and in encouraging suppliers to adopt better practices. We also present several additional avenues for market-based conservation measures that may strengthen or complement Current initiatives, such as working higher in the demand chain, connecting seafood security to climate change via life cycle analysis, diverting small fish away from the fishmeal industry into human food markets, and the elimination of fisheries subsidies. Finally, as was done with greenhouse gas emissions, scientists, conservation groups and governments should set seafood consumption targets.
Conflict between carnivores and livestock farmers affects human livelihoods and predator populations. Historically, successful mitigation of this conflict has been limited, sometimes because of a lack of participation among stakeholders to create and implement agreeable and effective solutions. Finding common ground between stakeholders can, however, be difficult, partly because of the range and intensity of values held. Using a novel combination of Q-methodology and the Delphi technique, I investigated whether a diverse range of stakeholders could agree on how to mitigate conflict between carnivores and livestock farmers in Namibia. A strong consensus was reached on using conservation education and husbandry training to reduce livestock depredation. Two narratives emerged: one group preferred non-lethal methods to manage the conflict, whereas a smaller group preferred lethal measures. This new decision-making exercise has potential to be applied to other conservation conflicts to assist with participatory decision making.
This study is the first to provide data on the extent of illegal hunting practices in Jordan using posts on social media. During January 2015-January 2016 photographs from seven hunter groups on Facebook recorded the killing of 4,707 native animals of 59 species, of which birds constituted the majority, followed by mammals and reptiles. Flouting of Jordanian laws was widespread, with daily bag limits exceeded on many occasions, and in the case of chukar partridge Alectoris chukar, the most popular quarry, some hunters exceeded the limit by 3,000%. Of even greater concern, a total of 34 species with special protection under Jordanian law were killed, and the hunting of large mammals, especially ibex Capra nubiana and gazelles (Gazella spp.), with already depleted populations, was particularly excessive. It also appeared that a significant number of gazelles were shot by unlicensed hunters from Arabian Gulf countries. Overall, the survey indicates an alarming picture of overhunting of threatened species and ineffective enforcement of hunting laws, despite the efforts of key government and voluntary agencies. We recommend urgent action to address the causes of the problem and to improve the management of hunting through better collaboration, mobilization of resources and awareness raising.
The Vulnerable fishing cat Prionailurus viverrinus faces a perilous future in South-east Asia. It was last sighted in Cambodia in 2003. We deployed 16 camera traps at four sites in southern Cambodia during January-May 2015 to determine if the fishing cat was still present in the country. Eight photograph/video captures of fishing cats were recorded from the mangroves in Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary and one from Ream National Park, but there were no records from Botum Sakor National Park or Prey Nup. A number of other globally threatened species were also photographed in Peam Krasop Wildlife Sanctuary: the Sunda pangolin Manis javanica, the hog deer Axis porcinus and the large-spotted civet Viverra megaspila. We learnt of the killing of an alleged fishing cat at the Sanctuary in July 2015 in retaliation for raiding fishing nets. Illegal hunting and capture of fishing cats for the wildlife trade were reported by local informants at all sites. We provide photographic and video evidence of the fishing cats and highlight the importance of Cambodia's mangroves for threatened species conservation.