Influence of certain insecticides, ie. emamectin benzoate, acetamiprid, indoxacarb, and two bio-agents; entomopathogenic nematode (EKB20) and (Bt); in alternating the organization of entomophagous and their biological agents complexes were studied in tomato ecosystem in Minia Governorate, Egypt. The results reflected the tendency of entomopathogenic nematode and for selectivity, followed by emamectin benzoate when compared with the other insecticides. Diversity indexes after application of entomopathogenic nematode, emamectin benzoate and were higher at the two applications in the two successive seasons, followed by indoxacarb and acetamiprid. The highest values of equitability were shown in the treatment of entomopathogenic nematode and until 10 days post-treatment. The results showed that EKB20, Bt and emamectin benzoate have highly toxic effect against S and with low effect on the beneficial insects in tomato. The difference can be attributed to different mode of action of product and number of sprays. Therefore, emamectin benzoate, EKB20, and Bt are considered good promised control elements, especially in successful release of some schemes of tomato integrated control.
A survey was carried out to evaluate the Phytosociological and ethnobotanical features of district Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study was performed in different seasons of 2013–2015. The plant diversity comprised of 222 species belonging to 72 families. Among the total reported plant species, Poaceae (28 spp) was the dominant family, followed by Brassicaceae (15 spp.) and Papilionaceae (13 spp) while other families had less than 09 species each. Hydrophytes had 44 species (19.8%); xerophytes had the share of 157 species (70.72%), while 21 species (9.45%) were amphibious in nature. However, plant species possessing simple leaves were 170 (76.57%) species having compound leaves were 23 (10.36%). There were 24 species (10.81%) with dissected leaves and 05 species (2.25%) were aphyllous. Seasonal variation of species diversity indicated 173 species (77.92%) in spring, followed by summer with 120 species (54.5%), winter with 90 species (40.54%) and autumn with 84 species (37.83%). Meanwhile, the biological spectrum showed that therophytes were dominant life form and were represented by 110 species (50.1%), followed by microphanerophytes with 24 species (10.58%). Nanophylls were the leading leaf size spectra with 94 species (42.23%), followed by microphylls with 75 species (33.78%), while leptophyllous had 32 species (14.41%), mesophylls had 16 species (7.20%) and aphyllous were 05 species (2.25%).
Present study was undertaken to evaluate different morphological traits of rice advance lines. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with ten rice advance lines replicated three times at National Tea and High Value Crops Research Institute (NTHRI) Shinkiari, Mansehra, Pakistan. Three plants per plot were selected randomly to record the important agro-morphological data viz. plant height, panicle length, number of tillers per plant, branches per panicle, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, flag leaf area, grain length, grain width and length/breadth (L/B) ratio were measured. All the recorded data was analyzed through SPSS 16.0 and Statistix 8.1. The results revealed that the vegetative growth attributes i.e. plant height was significantly increased in FH10-2 (152.7 cm), No. of tillers in FH4-1 (4.3), No. of branches in JP-6 (24.33), panicle length in Line 2(24) (49.6 cm), flag leaf length in FH10-2 (50.7 cm), flag leaf width in Super NPT-3 (4.3 cm) and flag leaf area in FH4-1 (143.6 cm), respectively. Furthermore, yield contributing attributes like grain length (8.5 mm) and Length/Breadth ratio (4.7) were significantly increased in FH4-1 and grain breadth in Super NPT-3 (2.8 mm). Among ten advance lines of rice, nine were recorded with slender grain shape while four advance lines were recorded with extra long slender and long slender grain size each.
Controlling in chickpea crop is a big challenge for the grower in the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Keeping in view the yield losses due to weeds a research was conducted at Ahmadwala Research Station “District Karak” to control to Herbicides, mulches and allelopathic weed extracts were evaluated during the experiment. The experiment was repeated thrice using Randomized Complete Block design with Chattan cultivar. The weed control treatments Viz. Stomp 330 EC (Pre) @ 2.5 L ha , Fenoxaprop- -ethyl, Bromoxynil +MCPA (Tank mixture of herbicides), Starane-M, Eucalyptus leaves as mulch, wheat straw as mulch, allelopathic extract ( ) + Stomp, allelopathic extract, allelopathic extract were tested and compare with the control treatment during the experiment. The data was recorded on density m before and after treatment application, plant height, crude protein, crude fats, biological yield, and seed yield. The level of significance of all the treatments was (0.05). The results indicated that the minimum density was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC (4.74 m ) followed by herbicide Fenoxaprop- -ethyl 6.9 EC (10.87 m ). The maximum density was found in the control plots (81.64 m ) which were left undisturbed. Among the chickpea yield components, the maximum plant height at maturity (48.98 cm) was recorded for Stomp 330 EC the lowest plant height was recorded for control plot. The maximum crude protein (17.68), crude fat (2.93) and oil content was (5.92%) was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC and the minimum was found in the control plots. Similarly, the maximum biological yield (4058.7 kg ha ) and seed yield (1282 kg ha ) were recorded in Stomp 330 EC treated plots as biological and grain yield was observed for control plot. Therefore, it is recommended that using herbicides Stomp 330 EC and Fenoxaprop -ethyl is one of the effective weed control strategies for control of in chickpea growing areas.
To control the negative effects of synthetic pesticides, natural organic pesticides should take place to be an alternative to synthetic pesticides which have a lot of harms on the environment and public health. These alternatives are natural materials work as killers or repellents to reduce, destroy and kill pests which affect human health and environment. In this research, the effectiveness of natural organic pesticides has been tested by doing preliminary experiments as a first methodology composed of 11 ingredients of natural materials with different concentrations to choose the most effective components and mix them in one treatment (pesticide). The results were very positive for some of them and showed how these organic pesticides are effective in term of killing and repelling pests. Neem oil, Lavender oil, and Cottonseed oil were the most effective with high degradation time. On the other hand, Chrysanthemum liquid was the least effective as it is a liquid, not oil (oil is more concentrated). Moreover, Garlic oil and Mint oil were effective as repellants with high degradation time. For the second methodology where the most five effective materials based on the preliminary experiments have been mixed together to form one pesticide. The final pesticide showed effective results on stick insect and ants. Lack of studies about natural organic pesticides was an obstacle in this research, where some ingredients have not been scientifically tested in previous studies. This research could help to change from chemical activities used in agriculture field to more friendly methods in term of sustainable agriculture.
The paper describes the analysis of long-term fluctuations of aquatic communities (phytoplankton, macrophytes, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fishes) influenced by abiotic factors (water level, salinity) in model lakes of the Onon-Torey plain in Russia. The cyclic succession series are elucidated. These series may provide a basis for monitoring and forecasting the state of the ecosystem for the researched lakes and for other similar lakes in Central Asia.
A study was conducted in Metro cities in Chennai handling Water quality problems due to increasing population and improper disposal of solid and liquid wastes. The research work carried out in Adyar River Basin (ARB) this river adjoining from both Chennai and Kanchipuram district, Tamilnadu. The main objective of the present study is to identify the processes controlling the geochemistry of surface water and groundwater due to impact of flood in Adyar River. Surface water and groundwater samples collected from either side of the river were analyzed during post-monsoon and pre-monsoon (2016) adopting the standard methods of (WHO). Dominance of cations are in the following order Ca > Na > Mg > K and anions Cl > HCO > SO during the study period. The analytical results shows higher concentration of TDS, EC, Na, Cl, which indicate signs of deterioration but in the values of pH, Ca and Mg, are within permissible limit as per standards. To understand the geochemical processes piper and gibbs plot has used for the study. Rock water interaction and anthropogenic processes were the major processes controlling groundwater chemistry in this area.
The present study was envisioned to assess the short (96 h) and long-term (35 days) antioxidant responses of exposed to different concentrations (10, 50, and 100 μg/L) of commonly used antibiotic, erythromycin. When compared to the control groups, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the gills of the erythromycin treated fingerlings was significantly ( < .05) decreased during short-term, and the activity was increased (except 7 day in 10, and 50 μg/L) during long-term study period. Whereas in the liver, SOD activity of the erythromycin treated fingerlings was significantly ( < .05) elevated throughout the exposure period. In both the study period, catalase (CAT) activity in the gills, and liver of the erythromycin treated fingerlings were significantly ( < .05) decreased, when compared to the control groups. Glutathione peroxidase GPx, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) activities in the gills, and liver of the erythromycin treated fingerlings were found higher than the control groups in the both (short, and long-term) study period. In conclusion, erythromycin induce oxidative stress in aquatic organism ( ), and this data could be an effective baseline for molecular toxicology to monitor the impact of antibiotics on non-target organisms.
(Britton & Rose) D.R. Hunt and Areces (Cactaceae) are valuable Cuban natural heritage plants from ophiolite (serpentine) soils that are in Critical Danger of extinction. The study on was conducted in Matamoros and that of in La Ceja between May 2017 and July 2017, both in Holguín province. Samples in collections were also taken. The appearance of fungi somatic and reproductive structures was induced through wet chamber technique and isolation. Fungi were identified using taxonomic keys. Symptoms in consist of rotten soft roots, while displays yellow spots followed by brown to blackish lesions with brown centers. Cacti death is the result of those infections. Pathogenicity tests showed that in , the fungi responsible for the symptoms are Schltdl. (or a complex), (Penz.) Penz. & Sacc and sp. In , causes the witnessed anthracnose in stems in both habitats. These fungi constitute a severe threat in natural habitat more for than for Results suggest that roots are the most vulnerable part of and stems appear to be more sensitive in can infect both cacti, but no symptoms of illness have been seen either or . Infection similarities seen both in nature and in collections could be because of inappropriate horticultural practices. Other fungi found are Fresenius, van Tieghem sp., sp., sp. and sp. All fungi found in this study are new records for both hosts in Cuba. The results of this research allow to solve problems found in natural habitat and in collections. In addition, results suggest to collectors not to remove and use soil from the natural habitat, unless it is properly sterilized.