In 2006 and 2007, five sampling stations were set up in Xieshui River and its tributaries to study the macro-invertebrate communities, and measure physicochemical parameters and contents of different forms of arsenic. A comparative analysis and multivariate statistical methods were used to explore the effects of arsenic pollution on the macro-invertebrate communities. In this study, sixty species were identified, including 39 aquatic insects, 10 mollusks, 5 oligochaetes, 1 crustacean, and 5 others. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that the macro-invertebrate communities at the station with serious arsenic pollution tended to be simple and showed a significant decreasing in density, biomass, and biodiversity in comparison with the other stations. Arsenic pollution also had a major effect on the dominant species and groups. For instance, EPT taxa disappeared at the station with serious arsenic pollution, and chironomids that belong to the genus were very tolerant to high concentrations of arsenic. Results of the functional feeding groups (FFGs) analysis indicated that the predators were more tolerant to arsenic pollution, while the scrapers, filterers, and collectors were relatively sensitive to arsenic pollution. Results of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis showed that when the concentration of inorganic arsenic decreased to the range between the criteria continuous concentration (CCC) and the criteria maximum concentration (CMC), the effects of inorganic arsenic on the macro-invertebrate communities seemed to be insignificant. Results of a BVSTEP (Bio-Env Step-Wise Procedure) analysis showed that water temperature, rotifer density, trivalent arsenic, pentavalent arsenic, and total inorganic arsenic greatly influenced species appearance, while rotifer density and various forms of arsenic had a considerable impact on the species composition.
Due to the important role of medicinal and aromatic plants in different industries, it is important to increasing production of yield and secondary metabolite produced without the use of harmful chemical fertilizer. The use of organic fertilizers like humic acid and vermicompost is the best way to achieve safe production. Chicory ( L.) is a vegetable with possible medicinal properties. The research was undertaken to determine the effects of humic acid at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 kg.ha and vermicompost at 0, 5, 7.5 and 10 t.ha on mineral elements N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu uptake, photosynthetic pigment concentrations, and fresh and dry yield. The experiment was based on randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The humic acid and vermicompost benefitted nutrient uptake, yield and photosynthetic pigment concentrations of chicory. The highest of N (4.64%) and value (0.83%) was in the 10 t.ha vermicompost plus 0.6 kg.ha humic acid treatment. The maximum potassium content (11.05%) was obtained by application of 0.6 kg.ha humic acid and vermicompost (7.5 t.ha ). Humic acid and vermicompost did not affect on Mn content in aerial parts. Application of 10 t.ha vermicompost in combination with 0.6 kg.ha humic acid increased total chlorophyll content (average 3.63 mg.g FW). In humic acid treatments, the highest carotenoid pigments contents are measured 9.85 and 9.62 mg.g FW, by application 0.6 kg.ha and 0.9 kg.ha humic acid, respectively. While as relation to vermicompost, the maximum content 10.08 mg.g FW was determined in 10 t.ha vermicompost treatment. Appropriate concentrations of vermicompost and humic acid can be used for organic production of chicory.
Information available on species composition, richness and diversity of ant communities of Western Ghats is limited. Recognizing this, the study (2010−2013) was undertaken to evaluate richness and diversity of ants in eight sites of Western Ghats, India, with added notes on how it varies on elevation gradient. Spanning across broad altitudinal and latitudinal gradient, selected sites differed greatly for various micro-habitat variables. Using standard collection protocols and employing five collection techniques, 173 species belonging to 65 genera in 10 subfamilies were collected including twenty species published as new to science and two genera and six species reported for the first time from India. Varying among sites, species richness was recorded lowest (S = 29) at Manalar and highest (S = 116) at Periyar Tiger Reserve. With little but significant variations among sites, the Shannon-Wiener's species diversity index (H′) was recorded highest (H′ = 2.60) at Periyar Tiger Reserve and lowest (H′ = 2.11) at Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary connoting that sites with lower richness were not necessarily less diverse. Beta diversity (β-diversity) was lowest (19%) between contiguous sites like Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary and Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary and highest between site Manalar and Periyar Tiger Reserve at 68% suggesting that ant species composition distinctly varied in these sites. Our results indicated that only few species were adapted to full spectrum of environmental variation along altitudinal gradient studied and both species richness and diversity peaked at mid-elevations as against higher elevations wherein it underwent rapid decline. Such behavior is presumably due to favorable ecological conditions at middle altitudes. Our findings rank high as they not only provide baseline data against which futuristic faunal changes could be assessed with respect to perturbations in a biodiversity hotspot but they also could be used to designate ecological sensitivities to various regions of Western Ghats for future conservation programs.
in chickpea crop is a big challenge for the grower in the southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa-Pakistan. Keeping in view the yield losses due to weeds a research was conducted at Ahmadwala Research Station “District Karak” to control to Herbicides, mulches and allelopathic weed extracts were evaluated during the experiment. The experiment was repeated thrice using Randomized Complete Block design with Chattan cultivar. The weed control treatments Viz. Stomp 330 EC (Pre) @ 2.5 L ha , Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, Bromoxynil +MCPA (Tank mixture of herbicides), Starane-M, Eucalyptus leaves as mulch, wheat straw as mulch, allelopathic extract ( ) + Stomp, allelopathic extract, allelopathic extract were tested and compare with the control treatment during the experiment. The data was recorded on density m before and after treatment application, plant height (cm), crude protein %, crude fats %, biological yield (kg ha ), and seed yield (kg ha ). The level of significance of all the treatments was (0.05). The results indicated that the minimum density was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC (4.74 m ) followed by herbicide Fenoxaprop-p- ethyl 6.9 EC (10.87 m ). The maximum density was found in the control plots (81.64 m ) which were left undisturbed. Among the chickpea yield components, the maximum plant height at maturity (48.98 cm) was recorded for Stomp 330 EC as lowest data were recorded for control plot. The maximum crude protein (17.68), crude fat (2.93) and oil content was (5.92%) was recorded in the plots treated with Stomp 330 EC and the minimum was found in the control plots.Similarly, the maximum biological yield (4058.7 kg ha ) and seed yield (1282 kg ha ) were recorded in Stomp 330 EC treated plots as lowest data were observed for control plot. Therefore, it is recommended that using herbicides Stomp 330 EC and Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl is one of the effective weed control strategies for control of wild in chickpea growing areas.
Persian maple (PM) ( ) is a fast-growing and broad-leaved tree that is native of Iran. It occurs in the coastal plains of the Caspian Sea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of seed coat removal on the activity of peroxidase enzyme in PM seed.PM seeds were collected from Deiez forest located at Northern Iran. The seeds were categorized into two groups including coated and uncoated seeds. Extracts from each group were prepared at 4 stages including stage 1 (day 10), stage 2 (day 20), stage 3 (day 30) and stage 4 (day 40). Electrophoresis of peroxidase enzyme was performed using polyacrylamide gels. Peroxidase activity was assessed using a spectrophotometer. The Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-wallis tests were used to compare means of peroxidase activity between different groups. -value of <0.05 was considered as significant. The mean (SE) of peroxidase activities were 1.86 (0.19) and 1.13 (0.30) ( = .04). The activity of perdoxidase enzyme in coated seeds showed significant decrease between stage 1 and the stage 4 ( < .001). But, our results did not show significant decrease in peroxidase activity in uncoated seeds during the study period. We found higher peroxidase activity in coated PM seeds. The results of previous studies showed higher rates of germination in uncoated seeds. So, diverse effects of seed coat removal including increase in the rate of germination and decrease in the activity of peroxidase enzyme should be taken into account.
The brown planthopper (BPH), (Homoptera: Delphacidae), is a kind of seriously pest of rice crops throughout Asia and effective control is essential for economical crop production. Insecticides Abamectin, Imidacloprid, Chlorantraniliprole, Phoxim and Chlorpyrifos have been broadly used to control the brown planthopper for recent years. To investigate the resistance development of the BPH in Guizhou Province, we collected BPH from 5 sites (Panxian, Jinping, Sandu, Daozhen and Huaxi) in Guizhou Province June–August 2014. Their responses to two diagnostic doses of 5 insecticides (LD and detoxification enzyme activity) were examined. The results showed that LD value for Chlorantraniliprole in Jinping and Huaxi BPH population were 199.810 and 282.082 μg/g higher than imidacloprid, phoxim and chlorpyrifos. LD value for Imidacloprid in Jinping population was 3.957 μg/g lower than other BPH populations for 4 insecticides. The GSTs activity is significantly higher with Abamectin, Chlorpyrifos and Phoxim treatments. AchE activity is higher with Chlorantraniliprole and Imidacloprid, but lowest among three enzymes with Phoxim and Chlorpyrifos. The data demonstrate the development and spread of multiple resistance in in Guizhou Province and support reports of reduced field efficacy of imidacloprid.
Animal grazing affect rangelands ecosystems by changing dimensional characteristics. The aim of this study is to determine the most important variations on plant traits in response to the livestock grazing in Baladeh-Noor rangelands located Mazandaran province in North of Iran. Various plant characteristics were measured in moderate and high grazing intensity and exclosure for three key and palatable species of , and . In order to detect plant properties variation in three sites (exclosure, moderate grazing and critical grazing) and to determine their sensibility, the DCA and PCA analysis were used. According PCA analysis, the most changes of grazing effect in first principal component is related to the crown and basal large diameter, underground biomass and root. It was observed significant changes in five plant properties. Also, the results showed that 92.98% of changes are described by first and second axes and the most of Eigen value are crown and basal large diameter and root with 0.982, 0.977 and 0.968 respectively. As a result, the correct management of grazing according to the potential of soil and vegetation cover of each site could improve the condition of rangelands and produce the constant and dominant forages and livestock.
The stocking density of the globally threatened Eld's deer ( ) and hog deer ( ), living in the floating meadows of Keibul Lamjao National Park, India, were derived from the forage demand of each species and the availability of forage biomass in the meadows. The biomass production was estimated by harvesting the above-ground biomass every month for 2 years from 432 plots of size 1 m × 1 m that were protected by ungulate-proof enclosures. The actual intake of the ungulates was estimated from the percentage of dry matter consumed for each food plant species through micro-histological analysis. The populations of Eld's deer and hog deer that the meadows can support were calculated on the basis of the consumable dry matter available in the park, considering the variable thickness of the floating meadows. The estimated overall stocking densities of Eld's deer and hog deer were 0.141 ± 0.06 and 0.265 ± 0.12 individuals ha or 15,581.54 ± 1171.6 kg of ungulate biomass. The stocking density varied significantly with meadow type for both the species, being higher for thick meadows. The best available areas of the park having 864.29 ha, can support 170.41 ± 11.4 Eld's deer and 319.36 ± 22.94 hog deer or 17,356.38 ± 912.02 kg of ungulate biomass with a maximum of 173.6 ± 4.21 Eld's deer and 325.46 ± 9.45 hog deer or 17,684.56 ± 697.3 kg of ungulate biomass in the monsoon season. The thin meadows with an area of 732.34 ha can support another 119.37 ± 12.78 and 225.44 ± 23.88 Eld's deer and hog deer respectively or 12,201.35 ± 922.74 kg of ungulate biomass. In similar resource constraint habitat, this study will be helpful in determining the optimal stocking density for the science based management of rangelands, especially for the conservation of wild grazers.
The study was conducted on Alabna escarpment, southwestern Saudi Arabia, for evaluating the effects of elevation and soil components on the species diversity and plant community. Among 241 species (167 genera and 53 families) recorded in total, therophytes and chamaephytes prevailed in the area while bryophytes were rare. Clustering analysis revealed the presence of four community types which had a remarkable overlapping in species composition. Group 2 was the most diverse and represented by one stand with 58 species in which 19 plant species were only recorded in this group. Group 1 comprised two stands and the other two groups had more than two stands. Diversity and distribution of species were affected by elevation and element contents in the soil. The soil was slightly alkaline, not saline, contained a reasonable amount of elements and very poor in P content. Heavy metals were found in neglected quantities indicating that the area was unpolluted.
The temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition determines the feedback of soil carbon (C) pool to climate warming. In the present study, soil samples were collected from a long-term fertilization experiment (since 1986) in a double-corn cropping system. Laboratory soil incubations were conducted to investigate the effect of long-term fertilization on the temperature sensitivity of SOC. Results showed that compared to the initial level, long-term corn cropping without fertilization (control) led to a decline in SOC, while inorganic N, P, and K fertilizer application (NPK) maintained it. Organic amendment combined with inorganic NPK (NPKM) significantly increased SOC relative to the NPK treatment. Warming and organic amendment significantly promoted CO release. The temperature sensitivity ( ) of soil CO emissions was significantly lower in the NPKM than in the NPK, while no significant differences in values were found between the control and either the NPKM or the NPK. Therefore, organic amendment could promote SOC sequestration, and significantly reduce the temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition in the present subtropical upland soil.
Algae often reduce aesthetic values and usability of freshwater as they can grow excessively and present in high biomass concentration. A biological approach to control algae growth by using plant-derived substances has received significant attention due to its minimal undesirable effects. To date, numerous herbaceous plants species are known to have antimicrobial properties. Nevertheless, their inhibitory potential against freshwater algae remains widely unexplored. This study attempted to explore algae inhibition potential using extracts from five herbaceous plants including , , , and Potential inhibitory effect of each plant extract on algae growth was determined through the percentage of algae growth reduction as compared to the control. Our results revealed that all, except , gave positive inhibitory effects on algae growth. The highest algae growth inhibition was observed in the treatment with extract, which inhibited up to 50% algae growth as compared to the untreated control. Meanwhile, treatments with and showed up to 42.6%, 35.3%, and 22.5% inhibition, respectively. Higher algae inhibition effects by and extracts could be due to their flavonoids and alkaloids content. As an implication, this study suggests the potential use of widely available local plants such as and to inhibit algae growth in freshwater ecosystems.
Endemic Western purple-faced langur ( ) of Sri Lanka, is an exclusively arboreal, critically endangered primate whose habitats are severely fragmented with the human population expansion. Labugama-Kalatuwawa Forest Reserve (LKFR) which is identified as the last strongholds for maintaining viable populations of the species over the long-run and Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve (IMFR) which is located in a closer proximity to LKFR have no connection with each other at the current status. As there is no assertion of regional habitat connectivity at a metapopulation context, the study aimed to identify a potential habitat corridor for between LKFR and IMFR by using GIS as a tool in connectivity modelling. Study area was first divided into 0.04 km grids using ‘fishnet’ tool. Five main resistance criteria for movement were selected namely; land use, road density, canopy cover, human tolerance and Feeding Plant Species Richness and Density (FPSRD). Each grid was assigned with resistance values for above criteria ranging from 1 to 6. Overall resistance layer for movement was created using ‘weighted overlay’ in GIS environment. The best potential habitat corridor was identified via least-cost modelling. The resultant corridor falls within an area which mainly comprises of forest and rubber ( ) monoculture. It further accounts for the highest human tolerance, canopy continuity, FPSRD and least road density. Resultant corridor can be improved by bridging existing gaps and enriching the corridor habitats which would play an important role in conservation of by minimizing the isolation of local populations, ensuring the gene flow and maintaining the minimum viable metapopulation in the long run. This study further demonstrates that GIS can be used as an effective tool for least-cost modelling which helps to identify potential wildlife movement corridors at minimum cost.
and are two species of the rodents family Calomyscidae which are distributed mainly in Iran. Herein, we evaluated the habitat and ecological differences of these two brush-tailed mice in order to test the credibility of a hypothesis stating that species from habitats with different climates and vegetation show greater intraspecific differentiation than those from areas with more similar climates and vegetation. This study was carried out in four rocky regions in Iran between 2013 and 2015. Totally 52 brush-tailed mice were captured from Kopet-Dag, Khaje-Morad, Ark, and Shadan and Olang during the field studies. Maximum parsimony analysis inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences ( ) was used for species identification, and also comparison of mean Kimura 2-paramater distances was performed. According to the molecular studies, specimens from the first two regions were assigned to and samples from Ark, and Shadan and Olang belonged to . The mean distances within all examined Iranian samples of both and were 2.3% and 0.9%, respectively. Based on our field studies, were captured either from “cold mountainous” climate zone with as main vegetation cover or from “Mediterranean” in which is predominant vegetation. were found in “hot dry desert” and “cold semi-desert” regions both characterized by sp. and vegetation cover. Dog rose seeds were the main food of in Kopet-Dag, whereas brush-tailed mice in the other three regions fed mainly on Mount Atlas pistache fruits. inhabited concealed rock crevices, but were found living in burrows which were digged in the soft soils. Individuals of showed more calm behavior as compared with and (Rodentia) as well as (Lagomorpha) were the most abundant small mammals encountered with , while was the most successful rodent with sympatric colonies with In conclusion, in accordance with the greater genetic distances observed in populations as compared with , more significant differences in the habitat structure were also found for the first species in different parts of its distribution range.
Studies on ecosystem service function have an important significance for analyzing and understanding global warming. With the introduction of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies for the evaluation of ecosystem service function, the scope for analysis has been widening. Increasing number of researchers use these technologies to quantify the value of ecosystem service functions and reveal their spatial-temporal variability. By using the data for the interpretation of five RS images and net primary productivity (NPP) in Qinghai Lake basin, we assessed the value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services and revealed their dynamic variation in this basin. The result suggested that the average values of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services in Qinghai Lake basin between 1987 and 2010 were spatially distributed in a ring shape around the Qinghai Lake and decreased from southeastern to the north and northwestern regions; the northwestern areas had the lowest value. The vegetation carbon fixation value between 1987 and 2010 was on an average 28.87 × 10 yuan/a in Qinghai Lake basin, whereas the oxygen release value was 64.41 × 10 yuan/a. Alpine meadow ecosystem showed the highest value of vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release services function in Qinghai Lake basin, with average values of 18.28 × 10 yuan/a and 40.79 × 10 yuan/a, respectively, followed by those of temperate steppe and sparse vegetation. The vegetation carbon fixation and oxygen release values in Qinghai Lake basin gradually increased from 1987 to 2010, with the maximum value in 2010. By the end of 2010, the values increased by 7.19 × 10 yuan and 16.04 × 10 yuan, respectively. The values slightly decreased in barren land, lakeside marsh, river valley swamp, and sandy areas, but increased to different degrees in other ecosystems. Among them, the largest increase was noted in alpine meadow (4.38 × 10 yuan and 9.78 × 10 yuan, respectively), followed by those in temperate steppe with increased values of 1.12 × 10 yuan and 2.49 × 10 yuan, respectively.