Adipocytokines are polypeptides or proteins that are secreted by fat cells with a wide range of biological activities. Adiponectin is a fatty cytokine with insulin sensitization. It possesses the function of anti- diabetes, atherosclerosis and anti-inflammation. Adiponectin may participate in regulating the development of cognitive impairment, which is considered as a new regulatory factor for cognitive impairment.
To compare the effect of three different surface zirconium oxide treatments on binding strength and fracture patterns between zirconia and veneering ceramics. Methods: A total of 40 zirconia specimens and 10 nickel-chromium alloy were divided into 5 groups (n=10 in each group): a treatment group by zirconium oxide sand-blaste (Group A), a zirconia bonded porcelain group (Group B), a hot-etching solution group (Group C), a non-treatment zirconia (Group D) and a non-treatment nickel-chromium alloy group (Group E). After all treatments, a veneering porcelain (4 mm×4 mm×2 mm) was formed onto the center of all substrate specimens by plastic coating method. Shear bond strength (SBS) test with a universal testing machine was used in each group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology of the damaged specimen interface, which was randomly selected from each group. Results: The SBS test showed that there was no significant difference in SBS results between the Group A, the Group B and the Group D (both P>0.05), and both of them were significant less than that in the group E (both P<0.05). The SBS results in the Group C were significantly higher than that in the Group D, the Group A, and the Group B (all P<0.05), but there were no significant difference compared with that in the Group E (P<0.05). Conclusion: Sand-blaste and liner application on zirconia ceramic contribute no effect to binding strength between zirconia and veneering ceramics, but hot-etching solution can increase the binding strength between zirconia and veneering ceramics.
Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of vitamin A, exerts multiple effects on regulating embryonic development and inducing differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis as well as resistance in various cancer cells. Apart from the classic genomic action (binding to the nuclear receptors to regulate the expression of its downstream target genes), retinoic acids also play important roles in anti-cancer effect through non-genomic pathways (via extranuclear and non-transcriptional effects).
Gastric neuroendocrine tumors are rarely seen in the gastric tumors, because there are few case reports and the clinical diagnosis rate is low. There is no consensus treatment method in the world. However, with the benefit of esophagogastrodenoscopy and widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, the diagnostic rate of gastric neuroendocrine tumors is on the increase, which gives us an updated understanding for the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of the disease. By studying its pathogenesis, scholars have found that hypergastrinemia caused by various causes is closely related to its occurrence. Gastric neuroendocrine tumors are classified into different types or pathological grades depending on the state of progression of the disease and the unique clinical manifestations. Clinically used diagnostic methods include gastroscopy, medical imageology, nuclear medicine, gastrin, CgA, etc. There are also differences in treatments depending on the clinical classification. If the disease progresses rapidly and the grade is high, surgical resection of the lesion plus postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy should be actively performed. Other better treatments are still being explored.
To explore the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the protective effect of polaprezinc on acute gastric mucosal damage. Methods: A total of 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: A blank group, a model group, and a polaprezinc group. The blank group was fed normally. As for the model group and the polaprezinc group, the rats were given 1 mL ethanol (intragastrical administration) first, then they were treated with vehicle (1 mL distilled water) or polaprezinc treatment (100 mg/kg) 1 h later. On the 3rd day, rats in each group were fasting for 24 h before gastric administration. After 2 h of gastric administration, 5 mL of intraperitoneal blood was collected, centrifuged and stored at -80 ℃ for the detection of EGF and PGE2. Gastric tissue was collected for anatomic and pathological assessment. Results: Polaprezinc reduced gastric mucosa injury in the polaprezinc group compared to the model group. Compared with the blank group, the levels of PGE2 and EGF in blood serum were significantly decreased in the model group and the polaprezinc group (P0.05). Conclusion: Polaprezinc can provide effective protection for acute mucosal injury and the underlying mechanism is not directly related to PGE2 and EGF.
To investigate the role of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor AG490 in the anti-proliferation and cell cycle in human retinoblastoma HXO-RB44 cell lines in vitro, and to explore its effect on the expression of JAK2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Methods: Cells were divided into an experiment group and a control group, and the experiment group was further divided into 6 sub-groups according to different AG490 concentrations (6.25, 12.50, 25.00, 50.00 or 100.00 μmol/L). Cell proliferation in the different groups was analyzed by cell vitality determination. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis rate were examined by flow cytometry. The protein levels of STAT3, p-STAT3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected by Western blot. Results: After 48 h treatment with AG490, the viability of HXO-RB44 cells was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference in the experiment groups except the 6.25 μmol/L group (all P>0.05). The apoptosis rates in the experiment groups were significantly increased with increase in concentration of AG490 compared with that in the control group (all P0.05), but there were significant differences in the other experiment groups (all P<0.05). Conclusion: JAK inhibitor AG490 can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of the retinoblastoma HXO-RB44 cells through down-regulation of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
To investigate the clinical manifestations, imaging features, and diagnosis for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the jaw, we retrospectively analyzed 3 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the jaw and reviewed relevant literature. Three patients' lesion occurred in the maxilla with early painless masses. Two patients were diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma via biopsy, and one patient underwent maxillofacial resection with pathological examination which showed plasmaoblastoma lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the maxilla is rare and easily misdiagnosed due to the atypical clinical features. Biopsy at the early stage of the lesion and pathological examination can assist the diagnosis for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction is a serious complication of sepsis with no effective treatment. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator for energy metabolism in cells and plays a key role in the energy balance. Recent studies have shown that AMPK exerted a protective effect on sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, which was related to the regulation of inflammation, endothelial cells injury, energy metabolism, myocardial cells apoptosis and autophagy. Therefore, AMPK is a therapeutic target for sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction.
To explore the clinical features, pathological features, gene test results, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome(PJS). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 46 hospitalized cases of PJS during 2007 and 2017. Results: All 46 patients had mucocutaneous melanin pigmentation and multiple gastrointestinal polyposis. The pigmentation was first noticed often within 5 years old, and 14 cases had family history. The clinical manifestations mainly included black spots, abdominal pain, hematochezia, and anemia. Histological examinations showed that 20 patients were classified as hamartomatous polyps,18 as adenomatous polyps, 14 as inflammatory polyps, and 10 as zigzag polyps. Eleven patients sequenced a panel of 20 genes previously associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) by next-generation sequencing, and the results showed 5 patients with gene mutations, and 3 of them with intussusception and surgical histories were found to have pathogenic germline mutations in the STK11 gene. Endoscopic treatment was the main therapy, but endoscopy combined with laparoscopy or surgical treatment was performed when complications occurred or the polyp was too large. Malignant tumors were found in 3 patients during follow-up. Conclusion: PJS is a hereditary disease which is characterized by spots of the skin or mucosa and gastrointestinal multiple polyps. The main pathological features are hamartoma and adenoma. The risks for intussusception and surgical operation are found to be high in the patients with pathogenic germline mutations in the STK11 gene. Endoscopic treatment is the main therapy. PJS patients should be followed up regularly due to the increasing risk for cancer and being easily to relapse.
To investigate the effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) on expression of inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and to elucidate the possible mechanisms. Methods: Mononuclear cells were isolated from human umbilical cord blood by density gradient centrifugation, RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of inflammatory factors induced by LPS (1 mg/mL) in EPCs, the effect of low concentration (5 μmol/L) of ATP on expression of IL-1β, MCP-1 and ICAM-1, and the effect of different concentrations (5, 50 μmol/L) of ATP on the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) and CD14. Western blot was performed to detect expression of TLR4 regulated proteins MyD88 and CD14 or to detect the low concentration (1, 5 μmol/L) of ATP on the expression of TLR4, MyD88 and CD14 and the NF-κB signaling pathway. Results: EPCs highly expressed TLR4, and its ligand LPS (1 mg/mL) significantly upregulated mRNA expression of IL-1β, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 and protein expression of MyD88 and CD14 in a time-dependent manner (P<0.01), accompanied by activation of ERK and NF-κB signal pathway. ATP at low concentration (5 μmol/L) significantly inhibited LPS-induced mRNA expression of IL-1β, MCP-1 and ICAM-1(P<0.05), downregulated the LPS-induced protein expression of TLR4, MyD88 and CD14 in EPCs (P<0.05), and suppressed LPS-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway (P<0.05). Conclusion: ATP at low concentration may suppress LPS-induced expression of inflammatory factors in EPCs through negative regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.
Apolipoprotein A5 (Apo A5) is a novel member in apolipoprotein family, which is proven to be an important regulator in triglyceride metabolism, especially in adjusting the TG content in plasma. Apo A5 gene polymorphisms affect triglyceride metabolism and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The research focuses on -1131T>C, c.56C>G, and c.553G>T.
To develop an intervention protocol for children's unintentional injury risk behaviors, and to evaluate the feasibility of the protocol. Methods: By theoretically analyzing the influential factors for children's unintentional injury risk behaviors, children's cognitive development characteristics and the social learning theory, an intervention protocol was established on the basis of changing the unintentional injury attribution and negative information transmission of risk behavior consequences. A primary school in Changsha city was selected by random cluster sampling. A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted on the selected students once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. The scores of unintentional injury risk behavior before intervention, 3 months and 6 months after intervention, and the frequency before intervention and 6 months after intervention, were collected and compared. Results: A total of 194 children were included in the study: 98 in the intervention group; 96 in the control group; 96 (49.5%) boys and 98 (50.5%) girls between 7 and 8 years old. The scores of unintentional injury risk behavior for children in the intervention group at 3 and 6 months after intervention were 14.42±5.67 and 14.14±8.95, respectively, lower than those before the intervention (16.85±8.48) and in the control group (P=0.001). The number of minor unintentional injuries in the intervention group decreased from 119 to 56, and the number of children suffering 2 or more injuries dropped from 34 to 10 (P<0.001) at 6 months after the intervention, while both of them were lower than that in the control group (P=0.011). Similar changes were observed in some slight or more serious unintentional injuries (P=0.030). Conclusion: The protocol for changing the attribution to unintentional injury and negative information transmission for risk behavior consequences was proved to effectively reduce children's unintentional injury risk behaviors and relevant events.
To evaluate whether the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) procedures could increases the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) in offspring. Methods: A hospital-based prospective cohort design was conducted, which contained a control group of singleton pregnancies with indicators of subfertility who were still conceived naturally after using simple medical treatment (e.g. minimal medical intervention or ovulation induction), and an exposure group consisted of singleton pregnancies who had a history of infertility and IVF-ET treatment. All factors different between two groups in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the independent effect of IVF-ET procedures themselves on APOs. Results: After controlling for confounding factors by using multivariate logistic regression analysis, our results showed that pregnancies after IVF-ET experienced a higher risk of preterm birth (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.56), low birth weight (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.31), perinatal mortality (OR=5.33, 95% CI 2.44 to 11.81), and congenital malformations (OR=1.83, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.94). Conclusion: The IVF-ET operational factors may increase the risk of APOs.