The article presents the results of the study of the species composition of tree-shrub plantations of the Khortytsa National Academy park in Zaporizhzhya and its landscape organization. It was established that the total number of plants in the plantations of the park comprises 260 species, of which 202 are tree plants and 58 are shrubs. On the whole, 28 species of plants belonging to 25 genera and 15 families are noted in the studied territory. Among the woody plants, the most common are Catalpa bignonioides (18%), Betula pendula (14%) and Thuja occidentalis (9%). Families are represented by 1-2 species, with the exception of the families of Cupressaceae (5 species) and Fabaceae, Rosaceae, Oleaceae (3 species). The tree-shrub plantation of the park is created mainly by chaotic landings in the form of arrays and groups. The density of the tree planting in the park is 404 pc / ha, and the density of shrubs is 116 pc / ha. The analysis of the sanitary state of the tree vegetation of the park of the Khortytsa National Academy of Zaporizhzhya showed that out of 202 trees 21.8% belonged to the first category (without any signs of weakening), 40.1% of plants belonged to the second category (weakened), 18.3% belonged to the third (very weakened), 14.4%, - to the fourth (drying up), 2.9% - to the fifth (fresh deadwood) and 2.5%. – to the sixth category (deadwood of the previous years). The discrepancy between the species composition of the vegetation, the ecological conditions of growth and the high density of tree planting does not allow each plant to exhibit its decorative properties in full. All this reduces the architectural and artistic expressiveness and aesthetic appeal of the park. Therefore, the selection of plants for the design of green spaces should be carried out on the basis of generally known principles - ecological, decorative and bio-centric, which will enable to maximize the park environment in aesthetic terms and will give this object a unique look.
The problems of the development and interaction of civilizations have been of great interest to the representatives of various scientific fields for a long time. The period of the second half of the 18th - the first half of the 19th century was the time of the formation and development of predominantly linear stage theory of civilization. At the same time, certain provisions of the theory of local civilizations began to evolve and the idea of a multidirectional historical process began to develop, but the latter had not yet acquired an independent status. The paper attempts to outline the theory of civilizations proposed by François Guizot, whose activity created the prerequisites for the emergence of theories of local civilizations, or ethnographic theories of civilization, and Joseph Gobineau, who initiated his racial anthropological theory. In the course of the research, the comparative historical method, the methodology of philosophical hermeneutics, as well as the anthropological integrative approach were applied.
The article is devoted to the problem of repeatability associated with ideas about the nonlinear flow of time. It has been shown on the material of Mikhail Shishkin’s novel “Venus’s Hair” that modern prose is a space for the imposition of discursive codes, defined by us as polydiscursivity. The purpose of the study is to establish the role of precedent statements in an artistic text. The relevance of the article is explained by the insufficiently developed theory of polydiscourse, as well as the ability to determine the role of this language phenomenon in the formulation of artistic discourse. A polydiscourse statement is constructed as a reference to a wide cultural context and is realized in metadiscourse (in the discourse about the discourse itself), as well as in interdiscourse interaction with pretext, suggesting an appeal to the collective language experience. It is believed that the artistic utterance is organized on the basis of precedent texts: cultural artifacts, autoreference fragments (explication of the instances of the author and reader, self-repetition, reflection on his own statement), appeals to historical facts, etc. A special role in such an art space is played by repetition, the presence of which actualizes the problem of the original and the copy. Polydiscursive inclusions raise the problem of the original and the copy, which finds the original solution in the text of “Venus’s Hair”: any experience perceived as personal becomes an integral part of the individual’s self-consciousness. Any conventional utterance is placed somewhere between the categories of “own” and “alien”: being reflected, acquired, it becomes the “property” of the person, but remains open and accessible to everyone who speaks.
Location preference is a repeatedly debated subject in urban land economics. By and large, these deliberations are either empirical or theoretical in nature. A sizeable number of the previous studies tackle the question of most favorable location provisional on a certain set of constrictions. Moreover, other studies are dedicated to elucidating the nature (worth) of a real property at a particular location. Nevertheless, the problem of ascertaining the indicators that influence real property price is general to both sets of studies. The current body of knowledge on the impact of transportation infrastructure on real estate prices is diverse in its outcome and result with particular reference to degree or extent of impact as well as bearing, ranging from a negative to an unimportant or a positive effect. On the literature results, multiple spatial lag variables were found to be statistically significant signifying that a number of features or attributes of adjoining residential accommodations have significant influence on the subject residential property's value. Whereas the largest part of earlier hedonic price empirical studies considered only selected factors (such as, positive as well as negative impacts of single transportation mode or means, positive or else negative impacts of multiple transportation modes) into account, the majority of recent empirical studies, however, considered all these key determinants, factors and indicators into consideration for analyzing joint impacts of transportation facility. Through considerable strategy, policy in addition to planning or forecasting implications underlying the association between transit oriented developments and real estate values and the difference between previous studies’ outcomes and results, there is a strong necessity and requirement for further study and analysis to ascertain an advanced, reliable in addition to dependable level of conclusiveness.
Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) offer an economically reliable and suitable alternative in moderating the challenges presented by the existing convectional photovoltaic cells. However, the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells has remained relatively low. For this reason, this research was aimed at studying the characteristics of TiO2 compact layer that can be applied in DSSCs as a way of improving efficiency. To achieve this, TiO2 compact layer was deposited on a conductive glass substrate by using Holmarc’s Spray Pyrolysis system, using Ultrasonic Spray Head and spraying in the vertical geometry. X-ray Diffraction studies revealed that TiO2 compact layer was of anatase phase and had tetragonal crystalline structure. Raman spectroscopy showed that the most intense peak appeared at 142 cm-1 due to the external vibration of the anatase structure. Hall Effect studies revealed that TiO2 compact layer has a high density of charge carriers’ value of 1.25 × 1019 cm-3 hence it can be used in DSSC applications.
The thesis is devoted to the comparative study of the dialogical genre “argument” in the present-day British and Ukrainian language pictures of the world. This type of investigation has been the first so far in the field of comparative linguistics that deals with human communication. Argument is a widespread type of day-to-day communication, namely a kind of dialogue that finds its verbal conceptualization in English and Ukrainian. The general idea of argument can be formulated as an emotionally coloured verbal communication between partners who differ about something and try to convince each other in the righteousness of one’s position. Such a general scheme of argument interpretation is modified in the structures of ethnic languages. Thus, the terms argument and суперечка reflect the existing differences between two nations as for the type of interaction itself. The crucial difference is understanding of argument as a verbal exchange in British society and a verbal contest in Ukrainian one. One more allomorphic feature is that the British typically tend to get excited in argument, the fact reflected in the semantic components a heated or angry interaction. The next verbal specification argument gets in a number of its forms or subgenres. A closer comparative look at such kinds of argument as debates, polemics, dispute and discussion is suggested. The main differences and common features of the genres are established.
This paper is aimed at designing, constructing and performance evaluation of a solar still. The solar still is design and constructed with locally source materials for rural dwellers. The still absorber plate is constructed with 2 mm galvanised plate painted black with an area of 2 m2 to absorb solar radiation effectively. The side wall and the base is constructed with concrete. Sawdust and felt is used between the retaining wall and base to resist heat transfer from the system to the surrounding vice-versa. The top cover of the still is constructed with transparent glass pane of 4 mm housed in an aluminium frame. The catch basin that collects the condensate is constructed with PVC pipe channel of 50 mm. The performance of the still was evaluated with; Overall yield (sum of daily yield and over-night yield) at a different water depth of (20, 40, 60 mm), (5127 ml/m2/hr, 4558 ml/m2/hr, and 3852 ml/m2/hr). The efficiency of the system at different water depth (20, 40, 60 mm) 51.27 %, 45.58 %, and 38.52 %. The water analysis before and after distillation was certified safe and portable for human consumption.
The problem of development of forestry and conservation fundamentals of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe with the help of synthetic chemicals, makes it necessary to simultaneously solve two problems: on the one hand, the optimization and increase of the efficiency of the used substances, which, at low economic costs, dramatically increase the effectiveness of artificial forestry and forest productivity, on the other - such economic activity should not upset the balance in the environment. We need an accurate assessment of the relationship and interconnection of these two sides of one problem. Recently, the tendency towards the use of substances, derived from natural sources, in particular from plant material, has grown. The study of the mechanisms of self-protection of plants in nature has led to the development of new natural ecologically safe biostimulators and adaptogens. However, they are recommended, mainly for use in agriculture. Their influence on the species of trees is practically not studied. The article studies the influence on the growth and development of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana, its livelihood under the conditions of organic fertilizer “Bio-gel” on the bases of Oleshky sands in Kherson region. The results of the experiments conducted during 2016-2017 showed the effectiveness of Bio-gel effect on the growth of two-year seedlings of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana with open root system; the dependence of efficiency on the method of introduction and concentration of working solutions of fertilizers is established. According to the conducted research, an effective way of using fertilizers is soothing the root system. The positive effect of bio-gel organic fertilizer on the livelihood and preservation of seedlings has been revealed. The analysis of the sanitary state of Pinus nigra subsp. Pallasiana has shown their greater resistance to disease agents in the extreme climatic conditions of the southern steppe, which indicates the effectiveness of the use of Bio-gel for forest-cultivation in such complex cultivation areas as the sands of southern Ukraine.
The famous British historian, philosopher of history, cultural studies researcher and sociologist A. Toynbee introduced his original concept of emergence and interaction of different civilizations. His universalist approach to philosophy of history, his notion of historical cycles of the rise and fall of civilizations, philosophical idealism and the religious subtext of his analysis are set out in the twelve-volume work “A Study of History”. This paper attempts to analyze the civilizational concept of A. Toynbee. In the course of the research, the comparative historical method, the methodology of philosophical hermeneutics, as well as the anthropological integrative approach were applied. A. Toynbee made a tremendous attempt to present the history of humankind as a chain of emergence, growth, decline, death, and the new emergence of civilizations. This theory has caused sharp debates and ambiguity of interpretations. Nowadays, the postmodern world of the 21st century with its uncertainty, temporality and plurality of interpretations requires a new understanding of Toynbee’s spiritual heritage, which needs new research.