The article identifies the features that distinguish the universal use-value from the special consumer value, which allowed to solve the problem of classification of some forms of money as “complete” or “inferior”. It has been determined that universal use-value, in contrast to the special consumer value, reflects, first of all, relations between people, but not between a man and nature, exists only in commodity production relations and is not destroyed when consumed. Thus, money as a universal use-value should not be reproduced as ordinary goods, so its exchange value or purchasing power is not determined by labor costs for its production. This is true both for modern money and for gold money in the past, which also had insignificant “internal” value. Thus, it is necessary either to attribute gold money to “inferior”, or to recognize that the division of money into “valid” and “invalid” has no clear grounds for it. Modern money, in its turn, is not new production relations in comparison to gold money, it is not a new entity, but a new form of money. It has been proved that modern fiat money should not be regarded as the central bank debt obligations, because it is not such by its nature. Because of this, the existing credit mechanism for the emission of modern money and the growth of public and private debts, caused by such a mechanism of emission, is not necessary.
The article reveals the peculiarities of material and living conditions of the students of the Sumy State Pedagogical Institute in 1930-1940. On the basis of archival documents, the level of scholarship provision for students during the 30-40 of the XX century was analyzed, and a comparative analysis of the monetary equivalent of state scholarships in relation to workers’ wages was conducted. The authors cite archival sources that confirm the existence of various sources of scholarship support, for example from trade union organizations. It was stated, that the number and the size of scholarships of the students of the Sumy State Pedagogical Institute was gradually increasing, depending on the results of their study. Nevertheless, the scholarship support, as it is evidenced by the archival documents, was not sufficient for a young person to provide himself with basic clothing and treatment needs, also taking into account the fact that students, like all Ukrainian citizens, were forced to give out some of the funds for state loans. The article analyzes the reasons why students were deprived of scholarship, or why its size was diminished: academic debts, missing classes, violation of discipline, etc. The authors analyze the students’ situation after the introduction of compulsory tuition fee at higher educational establishments, increasing the requirements for the quality of education as the main factor in obtaining a scholarship. The article also investigates the problem of providing accommodation for students in hostels. The analysis of archival documents proves that this problem was acute in 1930-1940. It was solved gradually, sometimes without taking into account the interests of student youth. The article cites archival documents, some of which have been introduced into scientific circles for the first time.
The article analyzes the peculiarities of using the audiovisual method in teaching students a foreign language, examines the linguistic and psychological prerequisites for the creation of the audiovisual method, describes the introduction of innovative technologies in teaching foreign languages into practice, shows the specifics of the use of the audiovisual method in the classroom during the training process. The purpose of the work is to identify the optimal conditions for teaching students special, professionally-oriented vocabulary, as well as to demonstrate the ways of the full disclosure of the students’ research and creative abilities on the basis of the audiovisual method. The article solves the problems of searching 1) the ways of implementing a foreign language lesson by professionally-oriented vocabulary, 2) optimal directions of activating students’ creative activity when using the audiovisual method. The scientific and practical significance of the article is due to the development and introduction of innovative technology of teaching a foreign language in the pedagogical practice. The paper presents tried-and-tested teaching materials on the use of the audiovisual method in teaching foreign languages, as well as an example of the system of exercises, based on a feature film with the use of the audiovisual method. The article focuses on the effectiveness of the audiovisual method as a means of improving language skills and abilities. The results of this study prove that the use of audiovisual materials in combination with audio texts contributes to the process of deeper learning live speech when studying a foreign language.
The purpose of the article is to study the peculiarities of the use of information technologies in the organization of accounting at the enterprise. The relevance of the study is due to the fact that effective organization of accounting management at the enterprise is impossible without the use of information technology and its effective usage becomes more and more important in the process of enterprise management. It has been found out that: 1) accounting as one of the functions of management (regardless of the ownership and the type of economic relations) serves the management process at the enterprise, creating more than 80% of the information base of management decisions which are taken; 2) accounting (as a component of the accounting system) is an orderly system for collecting, registering and generalizing information (in a monetary instrument) about the property (movable and immovable, material assets, things owned by a legal entity), obligations (contractual and non-contractual) the entity of the enterprise (enterprises, institutions, organizations) and their movement by methods of overall, uninterrupted and documentary accounting of all business operations. The directions, possibilities and possible benefits from automation of the accounting processes are presented. It has been established that information technologies (as processes of data systematization and information processing) provide automation of the accounting method and other management functions in information systems. The main (key) elements of the accounting method are: 1) documentation; 2) inventory; 3) costing; 4) accounting bills; 5) double entry; 6) balance sheet. The results of the research suggest that the reform of the accounting system in Ukraine, based on international standards (using modern automated and computerized systems in accounting and management) is the basis of information provision of users for their adoption of sound management decisions. The prospect of further research in this area is the study of the conformity of accounting standards to international standards.
Cyclobenzaprine (CBP) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant whose myriad of therapeutic applications imply the need of better understanding its pharmacokinetics and thermodynamics. Henceforth, this work was concerned with an in silico investigation of CBP main metabolizers in the human organism, namely CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. For this purpose, computational methods were employed, such as molecular docking and other semi-empirical approaches. Results evidenced that the model herein depicted for CBP-CYP1A2 may not reproducibly represent the physiological interaction between CBP and this enzyme. Moreover, CBP-CYP3A4 docking results evidence thermodynamic feasibility of the molecular docking model and were further corroborated by literature, what may reproducibly represent a possible interaction between CBP and this macromolecule.
There are a considerable number of studies on the service quality dimensions of banking industries, but little researches were carried out on the product quality dimensions, and this led to the minimal understanding of the impact of product quality dimensions from the customers’ standpoints, This research sought to identify the impact Islamic banking products (Murabahah and Mudarabah) dimensions on customer satisfaction. The study surveyed Islamic bank customers (users of the Islamic bank’s products in Nigeria) using questionnaires to seek responses, a convenient sampling technique was conducted to reach out to customers, and the use of PLS-SEM 3 was employed for the analysis of the data. The result model shows an R2 value of 0.414 (for Murabahah), which means 41 % of the variance in customer satisfaction is explained by the exogenous constructs of perceived quality, cost, convenience and compliance of Murabahah, and R2 value of 0.309 (for Mudarabah) which means 31 % of the variance in customer satisfaction is explained by the exogenous constructs of perceived quality, cost, convenience and compliance of Mudarabah. The values of R2 for Murabahah and Mudarabah show that the constructs were moderate in determining the satisfaction level of customers as they produced 0.414 and 0.309 respectively.
The purpose of the article is to study and develop the main approaches to forming the model of informational and communicative influence of the subjects of ensuring national security in modern states on the source of threats (in response to crisis and emergency situations). On the basis of analysis of literary sources it was determined that the characteristics of the informational and communicative model as the influence of the subjects of ensuring national security on the source of threats presupposes defining its specific features, namely: 1) the existence of the common communicative space; 2) the activity of participants of communication process as subjects of mutual information process, sending information, one participant of communication involves the activity of another, who should also be guided by the motives, goals, intentions of his partner and analyze them appropriately; 3) the activity of the subjects of communication involves an informal “movement of information”, and an active exchange of it; 4) in the process of communication there can be mutual understanding (misunderstanding), which is achieved by the presence of feedback, as well as by the importance of information, provided that the information is not simply received, but also comprehended; 5) the nature of the exchange of information is determined by the possibility of the mutual influence of partners through the system of signs; 6) the effectiveness of communication is measured by the im-portance of the mutual influence of partners; 7) communicative influence is possible only if the person , sending information (communicator) and the person receiving it (the recipient) have a common or similar system of codification and decoding; 8) communication participants should identically understand the situation of dialogue (communication, negotiations; 9) communicative barriers may occur during the information exchange. It was established that informational and communicative influence of the subjects of ensuring national security on the source of threats should be understood as the influence of manipulative nature, not only during communication, but even at distance (overalls, special means, gestures, facial expressions, poses, etc.), due to which it is possible to predict the actions of the offender, as well as further changes in his possible behavioral manifestations in order to prevent and stop illegal actions, where it is obligatory to take into account the qualities which can acquire positive or negative manifestations.
Selection of information was conducted to streamline the theoretical provisions and develop practical recommendations for determining the economic losses of gas transportation companies from accidents and failures on gas transmission pipelines, caused, in particular, by corrosion damage to a pipeline. The classification of losses due to the influence of corrosion on the linear part of gas transmission pipelines was considered. It was clarified that the structure of losses of gas transportation enterprises from corrosion during the operation of the linear part of gas transmission pipelines includes the cost of protecting the elements of structures from corrosion; losses from corrosion of metals. It was proved that the size of economic losses from accidents and failures on gas transmission pipelines to a large extent depends on the quality of the anti-corrosion protection system (measures, methods, ways and means of control), and also on observance of the rules of safe operation. The method of calculating economic losses, caused by accidents and failures on gas pipelines (taking into account the cost of compensation for losses from environmental pollution) is proposed, which takes into account the approach of neural networks and has advantages over the existing ones, as it characterizes: nonlinear quality criterion; the influence of energy characteristics of the interphase layers and aggressive agents on the corrosion processes in metal; nonlinear character of the monitoring system. On the basis of neural networks, a method of controlling the parameters, characterizing the technical state of steel structures in the oil and gas industry was developed, taking into account the nonlinear model for optimizing information and financial flows. The approach of neural networks can reduce errors in estimating the parameters of a nonlinear model that describes the system for monitoring underground pipelines.
In the article, the features of application of special purpose unmanned aerial vehicles of the tactical level have resulted during the operation of the joint forces. The role of routes planning of special purpose unmanned aerial vehicles of tactical level in the conditions of a concrete battle situation is determined. The necessity of the mathematical development for planning a flight route of special purpose unmanned aerial vehicles is justified. Essence and maintenance of scientific task are set. Its formalized setting is guided.
The purpose of the article is to synthesize the scientific points of view on modern approaches to pharmacological correction of radiation damage. Conducting medical treatment, aimed at eliminating the negative effects of exposure to ionizing radiation and accelerating the recovery processes in an irradiated organism requires the mandatory use of anti-radiation agents. Today there is a reasonable division of all anti-radiation drugs into pharmacoprophylactic and pharmacotherapeutic. The means of preventing radiation damage include three classes of drugs – radioprotectors, radio modulators and radio modifiers. Special attention is paid to preparations of early pathogenetic therapy (radiomitigators) and the means of therapy of delayed effects of the radiation factor. The modern classification of the rather wide range of medicines with anti-radiation effects, which greatly complicates the holistic perception of their compartmentalization, taking into account their practical significance in specific scenarios of radiation damage, is compiled.