In the field of noncovalent interactions a new paradigm has recently become popular. It stems from the analysis of molecular electrostatic potentials and introduces a label, which has recently attracted enormous attention. The label is σ-hole, and it was first used in connection with halogens. It initiated a renaissance of interest in halogenated compounds, and later on, when found also on other groups of atoms (chalcogens, pnicogens, tetrels and aerogens), it resulted in a new direction of research of intermolecular interactions. In this review, we summarize advances from about the last 10 years in understanding those interactions related to σ-hole. We pay particular attention to theoretical and computational techniques, which play a crucial role in the field.
The σ-hole and π-hole are the regions with positive surface electrostatic potential on the molecule entity; the former specifically refers to the positive region of a molecular entity along extension of the Y-Ge/P/Se/X covalent σ-bond (Y = electron-rich group; Ge/P/Se/X = Groups IV-VII), while the latter refers to the positive region in the direction perpendicular to the σ-framework of the molecular entity. The directional noncovalent interactions between the σ-hole or π-hole and the negative or electron-rich sites are named σ-hole bond or π-hole bond, respectively. The contributions from electrostatic, charge transfer, and other terms or Coulombic interaction to the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond were reviewed first followed by a brief discussion on the interplay between the σ-hole bond and the π-hole bond as well as application of the two types of noncovalent interactions in the field of anion recognition. It is expected that this review could stimulate further development of the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond in theoretical exploration and practical application in the future.
The catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form aldimines represents an environmentally benign methodology in organic chemistry. This has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts. We present the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form imines and H2 that is catalyzed, for the first time, by a complex of the earth-abundant Mn. Detailed mechanistic study was carried out with the aid of NMR spectroscopy, intermediate isolation, and X-ray analysis.
Interleukin-23 (IL-23) and CD4 T helper 17 (Th17) cells are thought to be critical in psoriasis pathogenesis. Here, we report that IL-23 predominantly stimulated dermal γδ T cells to produce IL-17 that led to disease progression. Dermal γδ T cells constitutively expressed the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and transcriptional factor RORγt. IL-17 production from dermal γδ T cells was independent of αβ T cells. The epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation induced by IL-23 were significantly decreased in T cell receptor δ-deficient ( ) and IL-17 receptor-deficient ( ) mice but occurred normally in mice. Imiquimod-induced skin pathology was also significantly decreased in mice. Perhaps further promoting disease progression, IL-23 stimulated dermal γδ T cell expansion. In psoriasis patients, γδ T cells were greatly increased in affected skin and produced large amounts of IL-17. Thus, IL-23-responsive dermal γδ T cells are the major IL-17 producers in the skin and may represent a novel target for the treatment of psoriasis. ► Dermal γδ T cells are the major source of IL-17 in the skin upon IL-23 stimulation ► Dermal γδ T cells have features with other IL-17-producing cells but also are unique ► γδ T cells are required for dermal inflammation and hyperplasia ► Dermal γδ T cells from human psoriatic skin are increased and produce IL-17
From wedding rings on fingers to stained glass windows, by way of Olympic medals, gold has been highly prized for millennia. Nowadays, organometallic gold compounds occupy an important place in the field of medicinal inorganic chemistry due to their unique chemical properties with respect to gold coordination compounds. In fact, several studies have proved that they can be used to develop highly efficient metal-based drugs with possible applications in the treatment of cancer. This Perspective summarizes the results obtained for different families of bioactive organometallic gold compounds including cyclometallated gold( iii ) complexes with C,N-donor ligands, gold( i ) and gold( i / iii ) N-heterocyclic (NHC) carbene complexes, as well as gold( i ) alkynyl complexes, with promising anticancer effects. Most importantly, we will focus on recent developments in the field and discuss the potential of this class of organometallic compounds in relation to their versatile chemistry and innovative mechanisms of action. This review provides an overview of the recent results concerning anticancer organometallic gold compounds and related mechanistic insights.
Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance.
Revealing the size-dependent periodicities (including formula, growth pattern, and property evolution) is an important task in metal nanocluster research. However, investigation on this major issue has been complicated, as the size change is often accompanied by a structural change. Herein, with the successful determination of the Au44(TBBT)28 structure, where TBBT = 4-tert-butylbenzenethiolate, the missing size in the family of Au28(TBBT)20, Au36(TBBT)24, and Au52(TBBT)32 nanoclusters is filled, and a neat "magic series" with a unified formula of Au8n+4(TBBT)4n+8 (n = 3-6) is identified. Such a periodicity in magic numbers is a reflection of the uniform anisotropic growth patterns in this magic series, and the n value is correlated with the number of (001) layers in the face-centered cubic lattice. The size-dependent quantum confinement nature of this magic series is further understood by empirical scaling law, classical "particle in a box" model, and the density functional theory calculations.