In practically healthy people on the background of self-breathing, we used catheterization to obtain blood samples from Ao, PT, SC, VJI, SS, VH and VR. We believe that the standard tests of blood gases by volume (pO2 and pCO2) and their A-V gradients, quantitatively determined, are insufficient to fully assess the hypoxic states both in the whole organism and in individual organs. To estimate gas homeokinesis, we performed integral gas tests, including an additive criterion of blood gases—pressure in mmHg: 1) the summary pressure of the plasma gases, PS; 2) Gas functional, the gradient between the total indices of arterial and vein gases (Gradient D); and 3) the exchange gradient, Gradient DP [(arterial pO2 – venous (pO2+pCO2)]. Each test indicator at all studied points was determined in mmHg. Correlation analyses were carried out between the parameters of all tests. We found that the processes forming PS limit the amplitude of the PS deviation under changing parameters of the constituent components (pO2 and pCO2) due to acts of mutual replacement between them, as well as the influence of integral gas complexes under shifts in pO2, pCO2, A-V SO2. Unlike the generally accepted tests that record quantitative differences between the points studied, the integral gas tests allow us to identify vectors and mechanisms of adaptive changes in gas homeostasis, to perform a qualitative comparison of the functioning of the studied organs by gas-dynamic tests in the norm and in pathology.
The aim of the study was to assess fertility in women of reproductive age with hypothalamic dysfunction (HD) in the pubertal period and to determine the diagnostic significance of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) and NF-kB activity in the diagnosis of primary infertility in these women. Materials and Methods: Fertility was assessed in 86 women of reproductive age with HD in the pubertal period. A comparative characteristic of fertile women (Group 1, n=46) and primary infertility women (Group 2, n=21) with HD in the pubertal period was performed. FPG and FPI were determined after 8 to 12 hours of fasting. Serum IRI concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in the venous blood serum after a 12-hour fasting, as well as in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using ELISA kits. The activity of NF-kB was determined in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: BMI in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2: 22.63±2.68 kg/m2 versus 27.05±4.03kg/m2 (p=0.000). WC in women of Group 1 was 66.11±5.66cm versus 78.52±10.54cm in Group 2 (p = 0.000); WC >80cm was found in 2(4.4%) and 14(66.7%) women, respectively (p = 0.000). The average levels of FPG and FPI were significantly higher in Group 2. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in Group 2 were significantly higher than in Group 1. The serum level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly lower in Group 2; accordingly, the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in Group 2 was 1.8 times higher than in Group 1. The IL-1β level in UA (P=0.000) and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio (P=0.02) were significantly higher in women of Group 2 than Group 1, which indicated the pronounced inflammatory effects of TNF-α in the endometrium. Imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors indicated the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the inflammatory reactions at the systemic level and in the endometrium. In women of Group 2, the NF-kB level in UA was 1.4 times higher than in Group 1 (P=0.000). Conclusion: every fourth woman of reproductive age with HD in the puberty period has primary infertility. The results obtained indicate the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the inflammatory reactions at the systemic level and in the endometrium. Diagnostically significant markers of primary infertility are the serum TNF-α level and the UA levels of IL-1β and NF-kB.
The aim of this research was to investigate the glutathione system components and their association with polymorphisms GST genes in men with infertility. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty Russian men of reproductive age (Caucasians) who came to the public health institution Republican Perinatal Center in Ulan-Ude with an infertility problem of one year and more after marriage were included in the main group. The control group included 104 men with proven fertility. DNA samples were genotyped for polymorphisms in GSTP1, GSTT1 and GSTM1genes and activity of glutathione system enzymes was determined. Results: The most informative genetic and metabolic indicators in Caucasian males with infertility were combinations of the null genotypes GSTT1(*0/*0)+GSTM1(*0/*0) associated with a decrease of GST activity in blood and ejaculate and an increase of GSH and GPO in the blood. Another combination is GSTP1(Ile105Val)+GSTP1(Ala114Val), which is associated with suppression of the blood and ejaculate GPO activity and a decrease in blood concentration of GSH.
The aim of this study was to assess the expression of Th17-associated gene, AMPs genes and SIRT-1 protein in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Material and Methods: We studied a group of 20 IBD patients, together with 20 subjects served as controls. Colonoscopy, terminal ileoscopy, and colonoscopic biopsy were performed for histopathology diagnosis, and quantitative gene expression of Th17-associated gene, CAMP, Elafin and SLPI by real-time PCR. SIRT-1 protein level expression was assessed by western blot. Results: The expression of the four studied genes—elafin, SLPI, CAMP and Th17-associated gene—by relative quantification was higher in the patient group than in the control group. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between SLPI and elafin in the patient group (r= 0.8325 P<0.001). A statistically significant positive correlation was reported as well between CAMP levels and elafin levels in the patient group (r=0.6842, P<0.001). In addition, CAMP levels had a positive correlation with SLPI levels in the patient group (r=0.6373, P<0.001). The highest expression of SIRT-1 was found in severe cases of IBD and the lowest expression was demonstrated in control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was detected between IL-17 levels and SIRT-1 levels in the patient group (r=0.7822, P<0.001). Conclusion: A high expression of Th17-associated gene and AMPs gene has a significant impact on clinical assessment of patients with IBD. SIRT may participate in the progression of IBD.
Uterine leiomyomatas (ULs) affect up to 80% of women during their reproductive years. Though relatively benign, they can have life-threatening complications. This case report presents a 50-year-old, postmenopausal female who presented with severe abdominal pain secondary to massive hemoperitoneum. Upon exploratory laparotomy, a large, pulsing artery was seen on the uterus, consistent with a ruptured subserosal uterine fibroid. This case offers unique insight into the presentation and management of this surgical emergency.
The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamics of change in the intraventricular pressure, depolarization and repolarization processes on the ventricular epicardium (VE) in Rana temporaria in response to a rise in ambient temperature. By methods of catheterization and electrophysiological mapping the dynamics of the intraventricular pressure change, the processes of depolarization and repolarization on the epicardium of the heart ventricle in adult frogs in a temperature range from 10°C to 20°C were studied. We found that the rise in body temperature by 10°C led to increase of the maximal systolic ventricular pressure (MSVP), maximal value of the MSVP derivative and maximal rate of MSVP decline but to a decrease in dispersion of depolarization time and durations of activation-recovery intervals on the ventral and dorsal sides of VE. The role of the electrical inhomogeneity of the myocardium was shown to be a modulator performing fine adjustment to factors in the external environment of the organism.
The purpose of this study was to create a new system for predicting the risk of glomerular and tubular dysfunctions (GTD) in patients with disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (DCM) based on standard parameters and new molecular markers for the development of kidney damage in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and T2DM patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Material and Methods: The study included 69 patients: 16 patients with IGT (Group 1), 28 T2DM patients with MAU (Group 2), and 25 T2DM patients with MacAU (Group 3), according to the inclusion/exclusion criteria in the research. All patients were stratified by the MDRD. The control group (Group 4) included 11 healthy individuals. The duration of DN was 10.5 years. At the stage of data collection and screening, the standard methods of identification of IGT, DM and DN were applied. Additional methods are included quantitative analysis of the level of α-GST and π-GST, MMP-9 in urine by ELISA. Result: Analysis of the correlation interactions of the level of standard risk factors for the development of renal damage in patients with IGT and DN with the level of new molecular markers in urine and blood allows us to identify and introduce into clinical practice new screening tests reflecting the key molecular interactions that underlie the development of GTD in patients with DCM.
The aim of this study was to assess the anthropometric data of girls and young women in Yakutia, depending on the type of sexual dimorphism and ethnos. The study included 2,081 girls and young women aged from 16 to 20 years. All those examined were born and permanently resided in the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia); among them there were 1284 Yakuts and 797 Russians. Anthropometric measurements were carried out according to the method of V.V. Bunak (1941), adopted in the Institute of Anthropology of MSU. Absolute values of the main components of the body (the total amount of fat, muscle tissue, bone tissue) were calculated by the formula Matiegka (1921). The body type was determined in accordance with the Tanner index. Statistical analysis was performed using statistical software package SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL) The data obtained, depending on the type of sexual dimorphism, indicate the different maturation rates of the morphofunctional structures in Yakut and Russian women in the extreme natural climatic conditions of Yakutia.