The purpose of our study was to analyze association of miRNAs 146aG/C(2910164) and 196a2C/T(11614913) polymorphism with breast cancer (BC) risk for women of Azeri ethnicity in Iran. In the current case (n = 200)-control (n = 200) study, miRNAs 146aG/C(2910164) and 196a2C/T(11614913) were investigated for allelic and genotypic levels via the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. The statistical analysis showed a significant relation between CC genotype of rs11614913(196a2) (codominant, odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, p = 0.02236; recessive, OR = 2.92, p = 0.01695; overdominant, OR = 0.44, p = 0.0113) and BC susceptibility. The subgroup analysis of mentioned polymorphism declared the significant correlation (p ≤ 0.05) of the positive abortion, regular menstruation, positive human epidermal receptor-2 and positive estrogen receptor with BC susceptibility in CC genotype. The existence of a C-allele at miRNA 196a2(11614913) elevates women's BC susceptibility in Azeri ethnicity in Iran.
microRNAs (miRNAs) act as sequence-specific guides for Argonaute (AGO) proteins, which mediate posttranscriptional silencing of target messenger RNAs. Despite their importance in many biological processes, rules governing AGO-miRNA targeting are only partially understood. Here we report a modified AGO HITS-CLIP strategy termed CLEAR (covalent ligation of endogenous Argonaute-bound RNAs)-CLIP, which enriches miRNAs ligated to their endogenous mRNA targets. CLEAR-CLIP mapped similar to 130,000 endogenous miRNA-target interactions in mouse brain and similar to 40,000 in human hepatoma cells. Motif and structural analysis define expanded pairing rules for over 200 mammalian miRNAs. Most interactions combine seed-based pairing with distinct, miRNA-specific patterns of auxiliary pairing. At some regulatory sites, this specificity confers distinct silencing functions to miRNA family members with shared seed sequences but divergent 3'-ends. This work provides a means for explicit biochemical identification of miRNA sites in vivo, leading to the discovery that miRNA 3'-end pairing is a general determinant of AGO binding specificity.
Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3' nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3' adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1-EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3' addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3' adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake.
Background Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the economically most important species in the northern Atlantic Ocean and a model species for studying development of the immune system in vertebrates. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small RNA molecules that regulate fundamental biological processes at the post-transcriptional level. Detailed knowledge about a species miRNA repertoire is necessary to study how the miRNA transcriptome modulate gene expression. We have therefore discovered and characterized mature miRNAs and their corresponding miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. We have also performed a validation study to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression in Atlantic cod. Finally, we utilized the newly characterized miRNA repertoire and the dedicated RT-qPCR method to reveal miRNAs that are highly expressed in certain organs. Results The discovery analysis revealed 490 mature miRNAs (401 unique sequences) along with precursor sequences and genomic location of the miRNA genes. Twenty six of these were novel miRNA genes. Validation studies ranked gmo-miR-17-1-5p or the two-gene combination gmo-miR25-3p and gmo-miR210-5p as most suitable qPCR reference genes. Analysis by RT-qPCR revealed 45 miRNAs with significantly higher expression in tissues from one or a few organs. Comparisons to other vertebrates indicate that some of these miRNAs may regulate processes like growth, lipid metabolism, immune response to microbial infections and scar damage repair. Three teleost-specific and three novel Atlantic cod miRNAs were among the differentially expressed miRNAs. Conclusions The number of known mature miRNAs was considerably increased by our identification of miRNAs and miRNA genes in Atlantic cod. This will benefit further functional studies of miRNA expression using deep sequencing methods. The validation study showed that stable miRNAs are suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of miRNA expression. Applying RT-qPCR we have identified several miRNAs likely to have important regulatory functions in particular organs.
Synergistic regulations among multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) are important to understand the mechanisms of complex post-transcriptional regulations in humans. Complex diseases are affected by several miRNAs rather than a single miRNA. So, it is a challenge to identify miRNA synergism and thereby further determine miRNA functions at a system-wide level and investigate disease miRNA features in the miRNA-miRNA synergistic network from a new view. Here, we constructed a miRNA-miRNA functional synergistic network (MFSN) via co-regulating functional modules that have three features: common targets of corresponding miRNA pairs, enriched in the same gene ontology category and close proximity in the protein interaction network. Predicted miRNA synergism is validated by significantly high co-expression of functional modules and significantly negative regulation to functional modules. We found that the MFSN exhibits a scale free, small world and modular architecture. Furthermore, the topological features of disease miRNAs in the MFSN are distinct from non-disease miRNAs. They have more synergism, indicating their higher complexity of functions and are the global central cores of the MFSN. In addition, miRNAs associated with the same disease are close to each other. The structure of the MFSN and the features of disease miRNAs are validated to be robust using different miRNA target data sets.
Although microRNAs (miRNAs), other non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) (e.g. lncRNAs, pseudogenes and circRNAs) and competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been implicated in cell-fate determination and in various human diseases, surprisingly little is known about the regulatory interaction networks among the multiple classes of RNAs. In this study, we developed starBase v2.0 (http://starbase.sysu.edu.cn/) to systematically identify the RNA-RNA and protein-RNA interaction networks from 108 CLIP-Seq (PAR-CLIP, HITS-CLIP, iCLIP, CLASH) data sets generated by 37 independent studies. By analyzing millions of RNA-binding protein binding sites, we identified similar to 9000 miRNA-circRNA, 16 000 miRNA-pseudogene and 285 000 protein-RNA regulatory relationships. Moreover, starBase v2.0 has been updated to provide the most comprehensive CLIP-Seq experimentally supported miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interaction networks to date. We identified similar to 10 000 ceRNA pairs from CLIP-supported miRNA target sites. By combining 13 functional genomic annotations, we developed miRFunction and ceRNAFunction web servers to predict the function of miRNAs and other ncRNAs from the miRNA-mediated regulatory networks. Finally, we developed interactive web implementations to provide visualization, analysis and downloading of the aforementioned large-scale data sets. This study will greatly expand our understanding of ncRNA functions and their coordinated regulatory networks.
Since miRNAs can play important roles in different cancer types, how to discover cancer related miRNAs is an important issue. In general, the miRNAs with differential expression is the focus of attention. However, some important cancer related miRNAs are not excavated by differential expression analysis. We take this type of miRNAs as 'dark matters' (DM-miRNA). It is our great interests to develop an algorithm to discover DM-miRNAs. An effective method was developed to find DM-miRNAs. This method is mainly for mining potential DM-miRNAs by building basic miRNA-mRNA network (BMMN) and miRNA-lncRNA network (BMLN). The results indicate that miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interactions can be used as novel cancer biomarkers. The BMMN and BMLN can excavate the non-differentially expressed miRNAs which play an important role in the cancer. What's more, the edge biomarkers (miRNA-mRNA and miRNA-lncRNA interactions) contain more information than the node biomarkers. It will contribute to developing novel therapeutic candidates in cancers.
MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to, and suppressing the expression of genes. Research show that microRNAs have potential to be used as biomarkers for diagnosis, treatment response and can be used for therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, microRNA expression has effects on immune cell functions, which may lead to disease. Considering the important protective role of neutrophils and B-cells during infection, we evaluated the expression of microRNAs, known to alter function of these cells, in the context of human TB. We utilised real-time PCR to evaluate the levels of microRNA transcripts in the peripheral blood of TB cases and healthy controls. We found that neutrophil-associated miR-197-3p, miR-99b-5p and miR-191-5p transcript levels were significantly lower in TB cases. Additionally, B-cell-associated miR-320a, miR-204-5p, miR331-3p and other transcript levels were higher in TB cases. The miRNAs differentially expressed in neutrophils are predominantly implicated in signalling pathways leading to cytokine productions. Here, the decreased expression in TB cases may imply a lack of suppression on signalling pathways, which may lead to increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma. Furthermore, the miRNAs differentially expressed in B-cells are mostly involved in the induction/suppression of apoptosis. Further functional studies are however required to elucidate the significance and functional effects of changes in the expression of these microRNAs.
Thus, the main purpose of this research was to identify specific miRNAs in t(4;14) positive myeloma. In our study, a distinctive correlation analysis of miRNA‐mRNA was established to excavate specific miRNAs and hub target mRNAs in patients with t(4;14).