Describing and then explaining individual behavior during migration can help us to understand why (on both proximate and ultimate levels) birds migrate; the altitude(s) at which migratory birds fly, for example, can have far-reaching consequences. However, to date, no fine-scale, full-flight altitude data have been available for small (100 m) altitude adjustments during their flights (1.44 [hr.sup.-1]), not including initial ascent and final descent. The repeated changes in flight altitude that we observed should cause these birds to use more energy than they would if they flew at or near a single altitude for several hours at a time. We speculate that these altitude modifications may result from variation in atmospheric conditions or from the birds descending toward anthropogenic light sources during the flights.
Se tiene como objetivo presentar una breve revision acerca de los efectos de la altura sobre el nivel del mar en el funcionamiento neuropsicologico y la adquisicion de hitos motores en la infancia. Si bien, en el Peru, no hay datos objetivos para apoyar dicha afirmacion, el razonamiento descrito aqui esta de acuerdo con recientes hallazgos sobre la importancia funcional de los contextos biofisicos, que sugiere la presencia de alteraciones leves en el funcionamiento sensoperceptivo y psicomotor en condiciones de gran altitud.
Introduction The 6-minute walk test in cardiac rehabilitation is and effective and safe tool for the evaluation of functional status, as well of the effectiveness of the therapy, the adjustment of training methods, and to establish the morbidity and mortality prognosis. Objective To investigate the aspects that affect the physiological response in the 6-minute walk test in cardiovascular rehabilitation patients at moderate altitudes (2,550 metres above sea level), and determine the clinical importance. Material and methods A descriptive study was conducted on 487 six-minute walks by patients with ages between 18 and 80 years, enrolled in cardiac rehabilitation programme and who lived at a moderate altitude. Results The Colombian cardiovascular patients covered shorter distances than those demonstrated in other populations and other diseases. The heart rate during the test increased by 40 beats per minute and reached 65% of the maximum heart rate, as such that the systolic blood pressure increased by 20 mmHg. The perception of central and peripheral effort also increased up to 4 points on the Borg scale, as well as a mean decrease of 3% in oxygen saturation. Conclusion The 6-minute test is safe and well-tolerated in cardiovascular patients living at moderate altitudes. Significant changes were seen during the walk as regards chronotropic response, pressure, perception of effort, oxygen saturation levels, which were different from the results found at sea level. This phenomenon provides reference values for tests performed on cardiovascular patients at moderate altitudes, as well as for the clinical approach to the evaluation of the functional capacity, physical independence, falls risk, adjustments to medication, and an integral assessment of comorbidities.
Introduction and Objectives: The use of BMI is highly contested, especially in populations in which growth phase is characterized by short stature for his age. The aim is to verify if the BMI is applicable to a school sample of adolescents living in a region of moderate altitude of Peru. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study in 319 adolescent students (181 men and 138 women) from 12.0 to 17.9 years of age. Anthropometric variables of height and weight were evaluated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. The CDC -2000 reference was used to compare weight and height from Z- score and BMI by mean difference. Results: The Z - score showed body weight to small variations (from -0.3 to 0.3 kg). In stature negative values for both sexes (men between -0.3 to -1.3 cm and women between -0.5 to 1.3 cm) is observed. For BMI, there were significant differences in all ages and in both sexes (p <0.05). Conclusion: The mean values of BMI in adolescents of both sexes are increased due to the observed low stature. These results suggest that BMI would not apply to school adolescents living in a region of moderate altitude of Peru.