Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, PEERS® for Young Adults, shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment tool, and examining changes in social anxiety utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. Results indicated improvements in social responsiveness (SSIS-RS SS, p = .006 and CPB, p = .005; SRS, p = .004), PEERS® knowledge (TYASSK, p = .001), empathy (EQ, p = .044), direct interactions (QSQ-YA, p = .059), and social anxiety (LSAS-SR, p = .019). Findings demonstrate further empirical support for the intervention for individuals with ASD.
Background: Despite significant progress in primary prevention, the rate of MI has not declined in young adults. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate statin eligibility based on the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for treatment of blood cholesterol and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for statin use in primary prevention in a cohort of adults who experienced a first-time myocardial infarction (MI) at a young age. Methods: The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort from 2 large academic centers, which includes patients who experienced an MI at age ≤50 years. Diagnosis of type 1 MI was adjudicated by study physicians. Pooled cohort risk equations were used to estimate atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score based on data available prior to MI or at the time of presentation. Results: Of 1,685 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 210 (12.5%) were on statin therapy prior to MI and were excluded. Among the remaining 1,475 individuals, the median age was 45 years, there were 294 (20%) women, and 846 (57%) had ST-segment elevation MI. At least 1 cardiovascular risk factor was present in 1,225 (83%) patients. The median 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score of the cohort was 4.8% (interquartile range: 2.8% to 8.0%). Only 724 (49%) and 430 (29%) would have met criteria for statin eligibility per the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and 2016 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations, respectively. This finding was even more pronounced in women, in whom 184 (63%) were not eligible for statins by either guideline, compared with 549 (46%) men (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The vast majority of adults who present with an MI at a young age would not have met current guideline-based treatment thresholds for statin therapy prior to their MI. These findings highlight the need for better risk assessment tools among young adults.
Abstract Background Although there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may protect against oral HPV infection, no current research has demonstrated this in the general population. Methods We used repeated cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2009 and 2014. Participants 18–30 years who indicated whether they had received the HPV vaccine and provided an adequate oral sample were included (N = 3040). Oral HPV types were grouped by vaccine-type (types 6, 11, 16, 18) and by risk (high or low risk). Chi-square analyses compared oral HPV prevalence by vaccination status. Results Vaccinated adults had a lower prevalence of vaccine-type oral HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) compared to unvaccinated adults. Prevalence of non-vaccine high-risk oral HPV was similar between HPV vaccinated and unvaccinated participants. Conclusions HPV vaccination appears to provide protection against vaccine-type oral HPV infection among males and females in the general population.
Background: Little is known about the long-term health consequences of following the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA; Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005). Objective: The objective was to examine the longitudinal association between diets consistent with the 2005 DGA and subsequent weight gain. Design: We used data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a cohort of black and white men and women aged 18-30 y at baseline who attended 70) and +17.8 for blacks and +13.9 for whites with a DQI <50 (P < 0.05). In race-specific Cox models (with interaction terms for DQI x initial BMI, P < 0.05), a 10-point increase in DQI score was associated with a 10% lower risk of gaining 10 kg in whites with an initial BMI (in kg/m(2)) <25 but with a 15% higher risk in blacks with baseline obesity (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a diet consistent with the 2005 DGA benefits long-term weight maintenance in American young adults. Greater need for attention to obesity prevention in future DGAs is warranted. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:784-93.
Conducting patient‐reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty‐seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3–6 and 12–18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper–pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3–6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient‐preferred instruments may optimize future research success.
Background We used a positron emission tomography paradigm with the D2/3 radiotracer [11 C]raclopride and an alcohol challenge to examine the magnitude of alcohol-induced dopamine release and compare it between young men and women. Methods Twenty-one nonalcohol-dependent young social drinkers completed two positron emission tomography scans on separate days following ingestion of a juice mix containing either ethanol (.75 mg/kg body water) or trace ethanol only. The extent of dopamine released after alcohol was estimated by the percentage difference in [11 C]raclopride binding potential (ΔBPND ) between days. Results Alcohol administration significantly displaced [11 C]raclopride in all striatal subregions, indicating dopamine release, with the largest effect observed in the ventral striatum. Linear mixed model analysis across all striatal subregions of regional ΔBPND with region of interest as repeated measure showed a highly significant effect of sex ( p < .001). Ventrostriatal dopamine release in men, but not in women, showed a significant positive correlation to alcohol-induced measures of subjective activation. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between the frequency of maximum alcohol consumption per 24 hours and ventrostriatal ΔBPND ( r = .739, p = .009) in men. Conclusions This study provides definitive evidence that oral alcohol induces dopamine release in nonalcoholic human subjects and shows sex differences in the magnitude of this effect. The ability of alcohol to stimulate dopamine release may contribute to its rewarding effects and, thereby, to its abuse liability in humans. Our report further suggests several biological mechanisms that may mediate the difference in vulnerability for alcoholism between men and women.
Research suggests that impaired social skills are often the most significant challenge for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet few evidence-based social skills interventions exist for adults on the spectrum. This replication trial tested the effectiveness of PEERS, a caregiver-assisted social skills program for high-functioning young adults with ASD. Using a randomized controlled design, 22 young adults 18–24 years of age were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or delayed treatment control (n = 10) group. Results revealed that the treatment group improved significantly in overall social skills, frequency of social engagement, and social skills knowledge, and significantly reduced ASD symptoms related to social responsiveness following PEERS. Most treatment gains were maintained at a 16-week follow-up assessment with new improvements observed.
OBJECTOVE - To examine mortality rates and causes of death among subjects diagnosed with type I diabetes aged <= 529 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Subjects with type I diabetes from a population-based register in Yorkshire, U.K., diagnosed between 1978 and 2004 were linked to the U.K. National Health Service Central Register for death notifications. Deaths were coded using ICD-9 (1979-2000) and ICD-10 (2001-2005). Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using expected numbers of deaths from U.K. mortatity rates by cause of death and age at diagnosis. RESULTS - A total of 4,246 individuals were followed up, providing 50,471 person-years of follow-up. Mean follow-up length was 12.8 years for individuals aged 0-14 years and 8.3 for those aged 15-29 years. Overall, 108 patients died, of whom 77 (71%) were male. A total of 74 (1.7/1,000 person-years) deaths occurred in inidividuals aged 0-14 years and 34 (4.6/1,000 person-years) in those aged 15-29 years. The SMR was 4.7 (95% CI 3.8-5.6) overall, similar for males and females, but higher for individuals aged 15-29 years (SMR 6.2 [95% CI 4.3-8.6]) compared with those aged 0-14 years (4.2 [3.3-5.3]). The SMR rose with increasing disease duration. A total of 47 of 108 deaths (44%) occurred from diabetes complications, 32 of which were acute and 15 chronic. Twenty-two percent (n = 24) of deaths were attributed to accidents or violence (SMR 2.1 [95% CI 1.4-3.2]), including six suicides. Sixteen percent of all deaths were related to drug misuse (including insulin but excluding tobacco and alcohol) (SMR 6.4 [95% CI 3.7-10.2]). CONCLUSIONS - Subjects with type 1 diabetes diagnosed under 30 years of age had a 4.7-fold excess mortality risk. Nearly half of the deaths were due to acute or chronic complications of diabetes. Drug misuse-related deaths may be an emerging trend in this population warranting further investigation.
To date, the burden of cancer among young adults has rarely been studied in depth. Our aim was to describe the scale and profile of cancer incidence and mortality worldwide among 20–39 year-olds, highlighting major patterns by age, sex, development level, and geographical region. We did a population-based study to quantify the burden of young adult cancers worldwide. We defined young adult cancers as those occurring between the ages of 20 and 39 years because these individuals will have passed puberty and adolescence, but not yet experienced the effects of hormonal decline, immune response deterioration, or organ dysfunction associated with chronic health conditions. Global, regional, and country-specific (n=184) data estimates of the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths that occurred in 2012 among young adults were extracted in four 5-year bands from the International Agency for Research on Cancer's GLOBOCAN 2012 for all cancers combined and for 27 major types as defined by the International Classification of Disease, tenth revision. We report the number of new cancer cases and cancer-associated deaths overall and by sex alongside corresponding age-standardised rates (ASR) per 100 000 people per year. We also present results using four levels of the Human Development Index (HDI; low [least developed], medium, high, and very high [most developed]), which is a composite indicator for socioeconomic development comprising life expectancy, education, and gross national income. 975 396 new cancer cases and 358 392 cancer-associated deaths occurred among young adults worldwide in 2012, which equated to an ASR of 43·3 new cancer cases per 100 000 people per year and 15·9 cancer-associated deaths per 100 000 people per year. The burden was disproportionally greater among women and the most common cancer types overall in terms of new cases were female breast cancer, cervical cancer, thyroid cancer, leukaemia, and colorectal cancer; in terms of deaths, female breast cancer, liver cancer, leukaemia, and cervical cancer were the main contributors. When assessed by development level and geographical region, the cancer profile varied substantially; generally, the burden of infection-associated cancers was greater in regions under transition. Cancer incidence was elevated in very high-HDI regions compared with low-HDI regions (ASR 64·5 vs 46·2 cancer cases per 100 000 people per year); however, the mortality burden was 3 times higher in low-HDI regions (ASR 25·4 vs 9·2 cancer-associated deaths per 100 000 people per year), reflecting differences in cancer profiles and inferior outcomes. The global cancer burden among 20–39 year-olds differs from that seen in younger or older ages and varies substantially by age, sex, development level, and geographical region. Although the cancer burden is lower in this age group than that observed in older ages, the societal and economic effects remain great given the major effects of premature morbidity and mortality. Targeted surveillance, prevention, and treatment are needed to reduce the cancer burden in this underserved age group. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and European Commission's FP-7 Marie Curie Actions–People–COFUND.