Key program interfaces are sometimes documented with usage examples: concrete code snippets that characterize common use cases for a particular data type. While such documentation is known to be of great utility, it is burdensome to create and can be incomplete, out of date, or not representative of actual practice. We present an automatic technique for mining and synthesizing succinct and representative human-readable documentation of program interfaces. Our algorithm is based on a combination of path sensitive dataflow analysis, clustering, and pattern abstraction. It produces output in the form of well-typed program snippets which document initialization, method calls, assignments, looping constructs, and exception handling. In a human study involving over 150 participants, 82% of our generated examples were found to be at least as good at human-written instances and 94% were strictly preferred to state of the art code search.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) usage has anecdotally increased due to the principles of ALARA and the desire to Image Gently. Aside from a single abstract in the emergency medicine literature, pediatric emergency department MRI usage has not been described.Our objective was to determine whether MRI use is indeed increasing at a high-volume urban pediatric emergency department with 24/7 MRI availability. Also, we sought to determine which exams, time periods and demographics influenced the trend.Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained. Emergency department patient visit and exam data were obtained from the hospital database for the 2011-2015 time period. MRI usage data were normalized using emergency department patient visit data to determine usage rates. The z-test was used to compare MRI use by gender. The chi-square test was used to test for trends in MRI usage during the study period and in patient age. MRI usage for each hour and each weekday were tabulated to determine peak and trough usage times.MRI usage rate per emergency department patient visit was 0.36%. Headache, pain and rule-out appendicitis were the most common indications for neuroradiology, musculoskeletal and trunk exams, respectively. Usage in female patients was significantly greater than in males (0.42% vs. 0.29%, respectively, P<0.001). Usage significantly increased during the 5-year period (P<0.001). Use significantly increased from age 3 to 17 (0.011% to 1.1%, respectively, P<0.001). Sixty percent of exams were performed after-hours, the highest volume during the 10 p.m. hour and lowest between 4 a.m. and 9 a.m. MRI use was highest on Thursdays and lowest on Sundays (MRI on 0.45% and 0.22% of patients, respectively).MRI use in children increased during the study period, most notably in females, on weekdays and after-hours.
Background: Health information exchange (HIE) is increasing in the United States, and it is incentivized by government policies. Purpose: To systematically review and evaluate evidence of the use and effect of HIE on clinical care. Data Sources: Selected databases from 1 January 2003 to 31 May 2014. Study Selection: English-language hypothesis-testing or quantitative studies of several types of data exchange among unaffiliated organizations for use in clinical care that addressed health outcomes, efficiency, utilization, costs, satisfaction, HIE usage, sustainability, and attitudes or barriers. Data Extraction: Data extraction was done in duplicate. Data Synthesis: Low-quality evidence from 12 hypothesis-testing studies supports an effect of HIE use on reduced use or costs in the emergency department. Direct evidence that HIEs were used by providers was reported in 21 studies involving 13 distinct HIE organizations, 6 of which were located in New York, and generally showed usage in less than 10% of patient encounters. Findings from 17 studies of sustainability suggest that approximately one quarter of existing HIE organizations consider themselves financially stable. Findings from 38 studies about attitudes and barriers showed that providers, patients, and other stakeholders consider HIE to be valuable, but barriers include technical and workflow issues, costs, and privacy concerns. Limitation: Publication bias, possible selective reporting of outcomes, and a dearth of reporting on context and implementation processes. Conclusion: Health information exchange use probably reduces emergency department usage and costs in some cases. Effects on other outcomes are unknown. All stakeholders claim to value HIE, but many barriers to acceptance and sustainability exist. A small portion of operational HIEs have been evaluated, and more research is needed to identify and understand success factors.
An Application Programming Interface (API) provides a set of functionalities to a developer with the aim of enabling reuse. APIs have been investigated from different angles such as popularity usage and evolution to get a better understanding of their various characteristics. For such studies, software repositories are mined for API usage examples. However, many of the mining algorithms used for such purposes do not take type information into account. Thus making the results unreliable. In this paper, we aim to rectify this by introducing fine-GRAPE, an approach that produces fine-grained API usage information by taking advantage of type information while mining API method invocations and annotation. By means of fine-GRAPE, we investigate API usages from Java projects hosted on GitHub. We select five of the most popular APIs across GitHub Java projects and collect historical API usage information by mining both the release history of these APIs and the code history of every project that uses them. We perform two case studies on the resulting dataset. The first measures the lag time of each client. The second investigates the percentage of used API features. In the first case we find that for APIs that release more frequently clients are far less likely to upgrade to a more recent version of the API as opposed to clients of APIs that release infrequently. The second case study shows us that for most APIs there is a small number of features that is actually used and most of these features relate to those that have been introduced early in the APIs lifecycle.
In order to better understand why students use Facebook and how Facebook can be used for educational activities students’ attitudes and perceptions towards purposes of Facebook usage and Facebook educational usage were investigated in this study. Also, theoretical models of the purposes of Facebook usage and Facebook educational usage proposed in literature were examined using the sample of 226 students from University of Belgrade, Technical faculty in Bor. Previous studies have pointed out that there are three underlying dimensions of purposes of Facebook usage that can be indicated as social relations, work related activities and daily activities. Facebook educational usage also includes three underlying dimensions defined as communication, collaboration and resource/material sharing. These hypothesized three-factor models of purposes of Facebook usage and Facebook educational usage were tested on the present sample data using confirmatory factor analysis. The results confirmed hypothesized latent structures and theoretical validity of both investigated factor models. Further analysis revealed that, according to students, collaboration through academic groups (communities) represents the most important value of Facebook implementation in academic activities. [Display omitted] •Purposes of usage and educational Facebook usage factor structures were determined.•Purposes of Facebook usage include social relations, work activities and daily activities.•Facebook educational usage includes communication, collaboration and material sharing.•Collaboration through academic groups is the best form of Facebook educational usage.
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report. Results: Older agents remain active against some of the pathogens, although expectations of broad-spectrum cover for empirical treatment have risen. Education, expert advice on treatment and antimicrobial stewardship can produce significant reductions in use. Conclusions: More agents may need to be introduced onto the antibiotic formulary of the hospital, despite the poor quality of scientific studies in some cases.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to advance extant theorizing around resource integration by conceptualizing and delineating the notion of a usage center. A usage center consists of a combination of interdependent actors that draw on resources across their individual usage processes to create value. Design/methodology/approach This paper provides a conceptual inquiry into the usage center. Findings This paper delineates the notion of a usage center by way of focal and peripheral resource integrators, as well as focal and peripheral resources that form part of interdependent resource usage processes. The conceptual analysis reveals the need for resources to be accessible and shareable to focal and peripheral actors, with rivalry and emergence central factors influencing the actor’s usage processes. Originality/value Responding to recent calls for research developing insights into multi-actor value cocreation, this paper is the first to comprehensively and coherently conceptualize the notion of a usage center. In doing so, the authors build an important foundation for future theorizing related to the potential emergence of usage centers as well as the cocreation of individual and collective value.
The ever increasing fossil fuel usage and cost, environmental concern has forced the world to look for alternatives. Straight vegetable oils in compression ignition engine are a ready solution available, however, with certain limitations and with some advantages as reported by many researchers. A comprehensive and critical review is presented specifically pertaining to straight vegetable oils usage in diesel engine. A detailed record of historical events described. Research carried out specifically under Indian conditions and international research work on the usage of straight vegetable oils in the diesel engine is separately reviewed. Many researchers have reported that straight vegetable oils in small percentage blends with diesel when used lower capacity diesel engines have shown great promise with regards to the thermal performance as well exhaust emissions. This has been explained in detail. Finally based on the review of international as well as Indian research a SWOT analysis is carried out. The review concludes that there is still scope for research in this area.
The consumption of statins (HMG‐CoA reductase inhibitors) has been increasing, and a substantial part of the middle‐aged and elderly population use them continuously. Because a large fraction of the population is exposed, even a small excess of risk with respect to cancer should be considered. We carried out a record‐linkage study in Finland utilizing nationwide databases of reimbursed statin medication and cancer. The study population included all statin users in Finland who had purchased at least 1 prescription between 1996 and 2005 and who had no cancer diagnosis at the date of first purchase. A control population without statin usage was also included. Data consisted of 472,481 pairs of individuals that cumulated 4.2 million person years with an average of 8.8 years of follow‐up. Fifty thousand two hundred ninety‐four cancer cases were observed. Simvastatin and atorvastatin were the most used substances. The most frequent cancers were prostate, breast, lung, colon, and rectum cancer. In general, no association between the utilization of statins and cancer could be detected. In conclusion, this study adds large‐scale, population‐based results about the association between statin utilization and the incidence of cancer. We found neither beneficial nor harmful associations between the usage of statins and cancer.
Effective number of codons (N^c) and its variant N^′c (effective number of codons prime) are the two widely used methods for measuring unequal usage of synonymous codons in coding sequences, known as the codon usage bias (CUB). The mathematical formula used in calculating N^c and N^′c values is giving inappropriate measures of CUB in case of low abundance of amino acids. In addition, the magnitude of error also varies according to codon degeneracy. In this study, a modified formula for N^c and N^′c has been developed to measure the CUB more accurately. Online implementations of the modified formula are available in the web portal at http://agnigarh.tezu.ernet.in/~ssankar/cub.php. Effective number of codons (N^c) and it's variant N^′c (Effective number of codons prime) are the two widely used methods for measuring codon usage bias (CUB) in coding sequences. The mathematical formula used in calculating N^c and N^′c values are giving inappropriate measures of CUB in case of low abundance of amino acids and the magnitude of error varies according to codon degeneracy. In this study modified formula for N^c and N^′c have been developed to measure the CUB more accurately whose online implementations are available in the web portal at http://agnigarh.tezu.ernet.in/~ssankar/cub.php.