This paper presents the concept and implementation of a novel algorithm for homing and docking of underwater unmanned vehicle (UUV). This new technique has been implemented and experimented with sea-test data, and demonstrated angular polarity estimation accuracy as high as 92%
A conceptual design is proposed for an effective mine countermeasure (MCM) system, which consists of three unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) and 10-20 small charged deliverable vehicles. New underwater optical communication systems are introduced to improve onboard mine reconnaissance and decision making with the key technologies focused on system and communication efficiency, capability of data processing, and cost-effectiveness of MCM systems. The proposed UUV MCM system is cost-effective due to adapting disposable mine neutralization instruments, upgrading data process units, and configuring optical communication systems between heterogeneous underwater and surface vehicle units in operations. At the same time, efficient and reliable underwater optical and electromagnetic wave communication systems are also introduced and analyzed for future system applications.
Summary form only given, as follows. NSWC Carderock Division is presently supporting the Mine and Undersea Warfare Unmanned Undersea Vehicle Office PMS-403 by conducting test and evaluation of large Li/SOCl/sub 2/ cells and battery assemblies to be used in the AN/BLQ-11 Long Term Mine Reconnaissance System vehicle. These tests support performance evaluations, but are foremost safety verification and evaluation tests for the battery and the LMRS vehicle. This vehicle is intended to be launched from and recovered into 688-Class submarines. The cells represent the outgrowth of specialized development and optimization for exceptionally high energy density with high power. The battery is capable of producing 1500 watts of sustained power and consists of 24 series connected cells containing yielding 95 kWh in a 21" diameter, 52" long, 680 pound cylinder that is replaceable within the confines of the torpedo room of the submarine. The battery must perform efficiently and reliably, have intelligent communications with the UUV, and foremost and utmost, the battery must be fault tolerant to prevent any potential for hazard or harm to personnel and the submarine platform. The authors describe the development of the test program, the requirements for demonstration, performance of the cell and the battery, and describe special characteristics of the battery and cell design to assure safety. They describe the environmental and safety tests that have been conducted. They outline specific challenges they are addressing and outline future prospects.
Unmanned Marine Vehicles (UMVs), like their aerial cousins Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), are not easily classified under existing legal regimes. Even though unmanned, should these seagoing drones be treated as 'vessels' under the Law of the Sea Convention articles on navigation rights and duties? Are they 'vessels' under the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs, 1972)? If so, should they be accorded a manoeuvring priority vis-a-vis other vessels? Are the differences between autonomous UMVs and the increasingly automated manned vessels all that great, such that classification should turn on whether the vessel is manned rather than on how navigation and collision avoidance decisions are made and executed?
Biological systems in ocean environment provide all the desired features required for design of unmanned undersea vehicles. We noticed the uniqueness and simplicity in the design of rowing medusa and have successfully demonstrated working prototypes of Aurelia Aurita. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of bell joints in reducing the contraction force required for deformation. The study is based on observations made for the sub-umbrella features of jellyfish. Artificial jellyfish unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) was fabricated consisting of silicone as the matrix material and shape memory alloy (SMA) as the actuation material. UUV was characterized for its performance and tailored to achieve vertical motion. SMAs were selected for actuation material because they are simple current-driven device providing large strain and blocking force. However, electrical power requirements were found to be quite high in the underwater conditions. It was identified that by including "joints" in the structural material forming the bell, the overall power requirement can be reduced as it lowers the resistance to compression. An analytical model was developed that correlates the deformation achieved with the morphology of the joints. Experiments were conducted to characterize the effect of both joint shapes and structural materials on the motion. Results are compared with that of natural medusa gastrodermal lamella and analyzed using the theoretical model. By including the features inherently present in natural jellyfish, the required compression force was found to be decreased.
We present an underwater docking technique for a manta-type unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) which is under development in Korea Institute of Robot and Convergence (KIRO). The manta-type UUV is a test-bed vehicle for demonstrating an autonomous docking technique in the water tank . There are two cameras mounted in front of the vehicle for vision-based underwater localization around docking station. There is a range sonar array mounted in front of the vehicle. This sonar is used for obstacle avoidance, and also can be used as a simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) solution in a partially known environment. In this paper, we show the results of a remote docking experimentation performed in the water tank for the manta-type UUV. From the results, we verify the docking performance of a manta-type UUV and applicability of the developed docking station.
An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) needs an obstacle avoidance capability to make autonomous path planning decisions for successful undersea search and survey, maritime reconnaissance, communication/navigation aids, and tracking and trailing in uncharted shallow water. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a novel autonomous UUV path optimization navigator system for real-time, robust, self-adjusting, intelligent autonomous obstacle avoidance/navigation of UUVs. The POC system is based on our proprietary fast genetic algorithm, which processes signals from on-board obstacle avoidance sonar sensors to continuously optimize the navigation path while avoiding both moving and stationary obstacles in shallow waters. The system performs autonomous obstacle avoidance, accommodating navigation parameter changes. Vehicle dynamics are also incorporated by hydrodynamic compensation.
Path planning of Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) is a rather complicated global optimum problem which is about seeking a superior sailing route considering the different kinds of constrains under complex combat field environment. Flower pollination algorithm (FPA) is a new optimization method motivated by flower pollination behavior. In this paper, a variant of FPA is proposed to solve the UUV path planning problem in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) space. Optimization strategies of particle swarm optimization are applied to the local search process of IFPA to enhance its search ability. In the progress of iteration of this improved algorithm, a dimension by dimension based update and evaluation strategy on solutions is used. This new approach can accelerate the global convergence speed while preserving the strong robustness of standard FPA. The realization procedure for this improved flower pollination algorithm is also presented. To prove the performance of this proposed method, it is compared with nine population-based algorithms. The experiment result shows that the proposed approach is more effective and feasible in UUV path planning in 2D and 3D space.
Acoustic modems are the basis for emerging undersea wireless communications networks. US Navy Seaweb technology offers an opportunity to perform undersea navigation and tracking by virtue of node-to-node ranging measurements acquired as a by-product of the acoustic communications protocol. A simple localization algorithm is developed and verified with synthetic data and is then tested with an Unmanned Undersea Vehicle (UUV) during an experiment at sea. This work will look at improvements to an existing algorithm that was tested with data from the Seaweb UUV Test that was conducted in May 2005 in Monterey Bay. The main improvement that will be tested involves incorporating the third dimension (depth) into the equations.