Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an attractive choice for a variety of cellular therapies. hMSCs can be isolated from many different tissues and possess unique mitochondrial properties that can be used to determine their differentiation potential. Mitochondrial properties may possibly be used as a quality measure of hMSC-based products. Accordingly, the present work focuses on the mitochondrial function of hMSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCBMSC) cells and bone marrow cells from donors younger than 18 years of age (BMMSC 50). Changes of ultrastructure and energy metabolism during osteogenic differentiation in all hMSC types were studied in detail. Results show that despite similar surface antigen characteristics, the UCBMSCs had smaller cell surface area and possessed more abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum than BMMSC >50. BMMSC 50 and BMMSC 50 showed a lower level of mitochondrial maturation and differentiation capacity. UCBMSCs and BMMSCs also showed a different pattern of exocytosed proteins and glycoproteoglycansins. These results indicate that hMSCs with similar cell surface antigen expression have different mitochondrial and functional properties, suggesting different maturation levels and other significant biological variations of the hMSCs. Therefore, it appears that mitochondrial analysis presents useful characterization criteria for hMSCs intended for clinical use.
Background & Aims: Umbilical cord matrix stem cells (UCMSCs) are able to differentiate into mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. The present study investigates the differentiation potential of human UCMSCs into hepatic lineage. Methods: We isolated human UCMSCs and characterized them in vitro by measuring their expansion potential, by assessing expression of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, and by evaluating their ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. UCMSCs were thereafter subjected to a hepatogenic differentiation protocol. Expression of hepatic and MSC markers in differentiated cells was analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemical assays and compared with undifferentiated UCMSCs and freshly isolated liver cells. UCMSCs were transplanted into livers of hepatectomized-SCID mice, and engraftment capacity was investigated by detection of human nucleus and mitochondria and human hepatic-specific proteins. Results: In vitro expanded UCMSCs constitutively expressed markers of hepatic lineage, including albumin, α-fetoprotein, cytokeratin-19, connexin-32, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV. In vitro-differentiated UCMSCs exhibited hepatocyte-like morphology, up-regulated several hepatic markers, stored glycogen, produced urea, and exhibited an inducible CYP 3A4 activity. However, absence of some hepatic markers in differentiated UCMSCs, as HepPar1 or hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4), implied that their differentiation did not reach the level of mature hepatocytes. We also noticed that differentiated UCMSCs partially preserved MSC markers. Engraftment capacity of UCMSCs was observed, and expression of human albumin and α-fetoprotein was detected 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplantation in mice livers, while cytokeratin 19 was completely down-regulated. Conclusions: We conclude that UCMSCs, with a newly demonstrated endodermic differentiation potential, might be an alternative source for liver-directed cell therapies.
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in numerous consumer products, resulting in universal exposure in the United States. Prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with numerous reproductive and developmental effects in animals. However, little is known about human fetal exposure or metabolism of BPA during midgestation. In the present study, we present a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to directly measure concentrations of BPA and two predominant metabolic conjugates-BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate-in umbilical cord serum collected from elective second trimester pregnancy terminations. We detected at least one form of BPA in all umbilical cord serum samples: BPA (GM 0.16, range
Abstract Human umbilical-cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) constitute an attractive alternative to bone-marrow-derived MSCs for potential clinical applications because of easy preparation and lower risk of viral contamination. In this study, both proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) and their IFN-γ production in response to mitogenic or allogeneic stimulus were effectively inhibited by hUC-MSCs. Co-culture experiments in transwell systems indicated that the suppression was largely mediated by soluble factor(s). Blocking experiments identified prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) as the major factor, because inhibition of PGE2 synthesis almost completely mitigated the immunosuppressive effects, whereas neutralization of TGF-β, IDO, and NO activities had little effects. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-1β, produced by hPBMCs upon activation notably upregulated the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of PGE2 by hUC-MSCs. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated for the first time the PGE2 -mediated mechanism by which hUC-MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in tissue regeneration mainly through the secretion of trophic factors that enhance the repair of damaged tissues. The main goal of this work was to study the paracrine mechanisms by which an umbilical cord tissue-derived MSC population (UCX ® ) promotes the migration capacity of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which is highly relevant for skin regeneration. Furthermore, the differences between paracrine activities of MSCs from the umbilical cord tissue and the bone marrow (BM-MSCs) were also evaluated. In vitro scratch assays revealed that conditioned media (CM) obtained from both growing and stationary-phase UCX ® cultures induced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and keratinocyte (HaCaT) migration. These assays showed that the motogenic activity of UCX ® CM to HaCaTs was significantly higher than to HDFs, in opposition to the effect seen with CM produced by BM-MSCs that preferentially induced HDF migration. Accordingly, a comparative quantification of key factors with vital importance in the consecutive stages of wound healing revealed very different secretome profiles between UCX ® and BM-MSCs. The relatively higher UCX ® expression of EGF, FGF-2, and KGF strongly supports early induction of keratinocyte migration and function, whereas the UCX ® -specific expression of G-CSF suggested additional roles in mobilization of healing-related cells including CD34 - /CD45 - precursors (MSCs) known to be involved in tissue regeneration. Accordingly, in vitro chemotaxis assays and an in vivo transplantation model for chemoattraction confirmed that UCX ® are chemotactic to CD34 - /CD45 - BM-MSCs via a cell-specific mobilization mechanism mediated by G-CSF. Overall, the results strongly suggest different paracrine activities between MSCs derived from different tissue sources, revealing the potential of UCX ® to extend the regenerative capacity of the organism by complementing the role of endogenous BM-MSCs.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) with distinct differentiation properties have been reported in many adult [eg, bone marrow (BM)] or fetal tissues [eg, cord blood (CB); umbilical cord (UC)] and are defined by their specific surface antigen expression and multipotent differentiation potential. The MSC identity of these cells should be validated by applying well-defined readout systems if a clinical application is considered. In order to determine whether cells isolated from human UC fulfill the criteria defined for MSC, the immunophenotype and differentiation potential including gene expression analysis of the most relevant lineage-specific markers were analyzed in the presented report in combination with the HOX-gene expression. Cells from the UC do not differentiate into osteoblasts demonstrated by Alizarin Red and Von Kossa staining in addition to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-analysis of runt-related transcription factor 2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, osterix, bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4. Oil Red O staining as well as PCR analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and perilipin revealed an absent adipogenic differentiation. The lack of potential to differentiate into chondrocytes was documented by Alcian-Blue periodic acid-Schiff, Safranin O staining, and real-time PCR analysis of SOX9. Furthermore, neither endothelial nor myogenic differentiation was documented after induction of UC-MSC. In comparison to CB-and BM-derived cells, UC cells revealed an absent trilineage differentiation capacity in vitro. Therefore, these cells should not be termed "mesenchymal stromal cells." The UC cells can be distinguished from CB-and BM-derived cells as well as from pericytes and foreskin fibroblasts by the expression of HOX-genes and the cell surface antigens CD56 and CD146.
Stem cells are being evaluated in numerous human clinical trials and are commercially used in veterinary medicine to treat horses and dogs. Stem cell differentiation, homing to disease sites, growth and cytokine factor modulation, and low antigenicity contribute to their therapeutic success. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the two most common sources of adult-derived stem cells in animals. We report on the existence of an alternative source of primitive, multipotent stem cells from the equine umbilical cord cellular matrix (Wharton’s jelly). Equine umbilical cord matrix (EUCM) cells can be cultured, cryogenically preserved, and differentiated into osteo-, adipo-, chondrogenic, and neuronal cell lineages. These results identify a source of stem cells that can be non-invasively collected at birth and stored for future use in that horse or used as donor cells for treating unrelated horses.
Designing and developing new biomaterials to accelerate bone healing are currently under progress. In this study, we attempted to promote osteogenesis using strontium- and cobalt-substituted bioactive glasses (BGs) seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) in a critical size defect in the distal femur of rabbit animal model. The BG particles were successfully synthesized in the form of granules using the melt-derived route. After being isolated, HUCPVCs were expanded and then characterized to use during and procedures. The effects of the synthesized glasses on the isolated HUCPVCs as well as on cell lines SaOS-2 (selected for screening the osteogenetic potential) and HUVEC (selected for screening the angiogenic potential) were assessed by analyzing cytotoxicity, cell attachment, bone-like nodule formation, and real time PCR. The results of tests indicated cytocompatibility of the synthesized BG particles. For study, the HUCPVCs-seeded BGs were implanted into the animal’s body. Radiographic imaging, histology and immunohistology staining were performed on the harvested specimens at 4 and 12 weeks post-surgery. The evaluation of the samples showed that all the cell/glass constructs accelerated bone healing process in comparison with blank controls. The best and results were associated to the BGs containing both strontium and cobalt ions. This group of bioactive glasses is able to promote both osteogenesis and angiogenesis and can therefore be highly suitable for the development of advanced functional bone substitutes. Bone regeneration is considered as an unmet clinical need. The most recent researches focused on incorporation of strontium (Sr ) and cobalt (Co ) ions into bioactive glasses structure. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal which is currently used in the treatment of osteoporosis. Also, cobalt is considered as another promising element in the bone regeneration field that may induce hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis. In this study, the osteogenic potential of the strontium- and cobalt-substituted bioactive glasses in granule form seeded with human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) was evaluated and . Indeed, the main goal of this study was to improve the osteogenenic and angiogenic properties of bioactive glasses through the incorporation of strontium and cobalt ions in the glass composition. Although some researches have been conducted on this subject, the influence of the simultaneous use of strontium and cobalt ions on the improvement of bone healing has been not yet well understood and, therefore, deserves further investigation.
The use of human stem cells (SCs) is a promising novel approach for the treatment of many diseases and injuries. Umbilical cord and amniotic membrane represent good sources for SCs, because they are abundant sources and there are less ethical issues unlike embryonic SCs. We aimed to isolate and characterize adult SCs from the subamnion region of the umbilical cord/amniotic membrane. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are thought to show less immunogenicity, we first focused on the characterization of MSCs. Significant expression of typical SC-specific markers, such as SSEA-4, Oct-4, and Nanog was observed. Subamniotic MSCs did not lose the expression of Oct-4 and Nanog after freeze-thawing. Cell surface expression of MSC markers (CD73 and CD105) was confirmed by flow cytometry, and cells also differentiated into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. On the other hand, typical embryonic SC-specific markers were not expressed and the cells also did not grow in soft agar. Thus, the subamniotic MSCs are distinct from embryonic SCs and do not show tumorigenicity in vitro. The cord lining membrane (subamniotic) MSCs isolated by our method maintain typical characteristics of MSCs in vitro, but also showed several specific features.