Aims: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most significant global health emergencies of the 21st century. Every year, an increasing number of people succumb to the condition and therefore suffer life-changing complications. So management of this disease has an important role to prevent complications. In this study, our objective is to assess the quality of guidelines related to the significant public health problem diabetes that have been developed by international and national organizations using the AGREE II tool. Methods: This observational study assesses the quality of clinical practice guidelines used in the management of diabetes with AGREE II tool. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 20 program package. Results: The overall quality score of the guidelines ranges between 3 and 6.25. While NICE's guidelines scored the highest, the guidelines of the National Diabetes Foundation scored the lowest. Conclusion: More comprehensive studies are needed for assessing the quality of guidelines in every subject. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Over the past three decades, the number of people with diabetes mellitus has more than doubled globally, making it one of the most important public health challenges to all nations. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes are increasingly observed among children, adolescents and younger adults. The causes of the epidemic of T2DM are embedded in a very complex group of genetic and epigenetic systems interacting within an equally complex societal framework that determines behavior and environmental influences. This complexity is reflected in the diverse topics discussed in this Review. In the past few years considerable emphasis has been placed on the effect of the intrauterine environment in the epidemic of T2DM, particularly in the early onset of T2DM and obesity. Prevention of T2DM is a 'whole-of-life' task and requires an integrated approach operating from the origin of the disease. Future research is necessary to better understand the potential role of remaining factors, such as genetic predisposition and maternal environment, to help shape prevention programs. The potential effect on global diabetes surveillance of using HbA(1c) rather than glucose values in the diagnosis of T2DM is also discussed.
The consensus algorithm for the medical management of type 2 diabetes was published in August 2006 with the expectation that it would be updated, based on the availability of new interventions and new evidence to establish their clinical role. The authors continue to endorse the principles used to develop the algorithm and its major features. We are sensitive to the risks of changing the algorithm cavalierly or too frequently, without compelling new information. An update to the consensus algorithm published in January 2008 specifically addressed safety issues surrounding the thiazolidinediones. In this revision, we focus on the new classes of medications that now have more clinical data and experience.
The purpose of this study is to compare effects of different nations on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) vs. intensive medical management (IMM) in achieving remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Between April 2008 and December 2011, this randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted at four teaching hospitals in the United States and Taiwan involving 71 participants with mild obesity (BMI 30-35 kg/m(2)). Thirty-six of 71 participants were randomly assigned to the RYGB group, and the others were in IMM group. Partial or complete remission of T2DM was defined as blood HbA1c < 6.5 % (48 mmol/mol) or < 6 % (42 mmol/mol) without any antihyperglycemic medication for at least 1-year duration, respectively. At baseline, Taiwanese participants had a lower BMI, younger age, and shorter duration of T2DM than American participants. At 24 months, weight loss was greater in the RYGB group in both populations than in the IMM group. No IMM participant of either population had partial or complete remission of T2DM. In the RYGB group, a substantial proportion of the subjects achieved complete or partial remission (57 % in Taiwanese and 27 % in American participants, P = 0.08). Logistic regression revealed stimulated C-peptide (Odds ratio 2.22, P = 0.02) but not nationality as a significant predictor of diabetes remission. Adding RYGB to lifestyle and medical management was associated with a greater likelihood of remission of T2DM in both Taiwanese and American subjects with mild obesity with type 2 diabetes. Residual beta-cell function at baseline appears to be the major factor predicting remission of T2DM.
Blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly influenced by the seasons, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels decreasing in the summer or warm season and increasing in the winter or cold season. In addition, several studies have shown that sepsis is also associated with the seasons. Although both blood glucose control and sepsis can strongly affect the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia, few studies have examined the seasonal variation of severe hypoglycemia. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between severe hypoglycemia and the seasons in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-diabetes mellitus (non-DM). We retrospectively reviewed all the patients with severe hypoglycemia at a national center in Japan between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2012. A total of 57,132 consecutive cases that had visited the emergency room by ambulance were screened, and 578 eligible cases of severe hypoglycemia were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome was to assess the seasonality of severe hypoglycemia. In the T1DM group (n = 88), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the summer than in the winter (35.2% in summer vs 18.2% in winter, P = 0.01), and the HbA1c levels were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer (9.1% [7.6%-10.1%] in winter vs 7.7% [7.1%-8.3%] in summer, P = 0.13). In the non-DM group (n = 173), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the winter than in the summer (30.6% in winter vs 19.6% in summer, P = 0.01), and sepsis as a complication occurred significantly more often in winter than in summer (24.5% in winter vs 5.9% in summer, P = 0.02). In the T2DM group (n = 317), the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and the HbA1c levels did not differ significantly among the seasons. The occurrence of severe hypoglycemia might be seasonal and might fluctuate with temperature changes. Patients should be treated more carefully during the season in which severe hypoglycemia is more common.
Background: Cigarette smoking is an established predictor of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the effects of smoking cessation on diabetes risk are unknown. Objective: To test the hypothesis that smoking cessation increases diabetes risk in the short term, possibly owing to cessation-related weight gain. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study. Patients: 10 892 middle-aged adults who initially did not have diabetes in 1987 to 1989. Measurements: Smoking was assessed by interview at baseline and at subsequent follow-up. Incident diabetes was ascertained by fasting glucose assays through 1998 and self-report of physician diagnosis or use of diabetes medications through 2004. Results: During 9 years of follow-up, 1254 adults developed type 2 diabetes. Compared with adults who never smoked, the adjusted hazard ratio of incident diabetes in the highest tertile of pack-years was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.67). In the first 3 years of follow-up, 380 adults quit smoking. After adjustment for age, race, sex, education, adiposity, physical activity, lipid levels, blood pressure, and ARIC Study center, compared with adults who never smoked, the hazard ratios of diabetes among former smokers, new quitters, and continuing smokers were 1.22 (CI, 0.99 to 1.50), 1.73 (CI, 1.19 to 2.53), and 1.31 (CI, 1.04 to 1.65), respectively. Further adjustment for weight change and leukocyte count attenuated these risks substantially. In an analysis of long-term risk after quitting, the highest risk occurred in the first 3 years (hazard ratio, 1.91 [CI, 1.19 to 3.05]), then gradually decreased to 0 at 12 years. Limitation: Residual confounding is possible even with meticulous adjustment for established diabetes risk factors. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking predicts incident type 2 diabetes, but smoking cessation leads to higher short-term risk. For smokers at risk for diabetes, smoking cessation should be coupled with strategies for diabetes prevention and early detection.
Aims/Introduction Besides the aging population in China, the following have become serious public health problems: increasing urban population, lifestyle changes and diabetes. We assessed the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China between 2000 and 2014, and analyzed time trends to better determine the prevalence status of diabetes in China and to provide a basis for prevention and decision‐making. Materials and Methods In our systematic review, we searched China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese VIP Information, Wanfang and PubMed databases for studies on type 2 diabetes mellitus between 2000 and 2014 in China. Two investigators extracted the data and assessed the quality of the included literature independently. We excluded studies that did not use 1999 World Health Organization criteria for diabetes. We also excluded reviews and viewpoints, studies with insufficient data, studies that were not carried out in mainland China and studies on troops, community, schools or physical examination people. We used stata 12.0 to combine the prevalence of all studies, calculated the pooled prevalence and its 95% confidence interval, and analyzed the differences among men/women, urban/rural areas and year of study. We calculated the prevalence of seven geographic areas of China, respectively, and mapped the distribution in the whole country to estimate the pooled prevalence of each area. Results Our search returned 4,572 studies, 77 of which satisfied the inclusion criteria. The included studies had a total of 1,287,251 participants, in which 680,574 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were recorded. The overall prevalence (9.1%) has been increasing since the 1970s, and it increased rapidly with age. The prevalence of the 65–74 years group was as high as 14.1%. Meanwhile, the prevalence among men/women and urban/rural areas was significantly different. The prevalence was 9.9% for men and 11.6% for women, which were significantly higher than the average at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century. The prevalence rate in urban areas (11.4%) was significantly higher than that in rural areas and in urban‐rural fringe areas, and the prevalence in rural areas (8.2%) was slightly higher than that in urban‐rural fringe areas (7.5%). In addition, the prevalence in each geographic area were estimated and mapped, which showed a large imbalance in the map. Conclusions Our analysis suggested that type 2 diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent in China. These results underscore the urgent need for the government to vigorously strengthen the management of diabetes prevention and control. Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in China between 2000 to 2014, especially among male/female, urban/rural areas, geographic areas, and year of study.
Inflammation-induced inhibition of the insulin signalling pathway can lead to insulin resistance and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a chronic but subclinical inflammatory process that impairs insulin action in most tissues and could also hamper pancreatic 13-cell function. The involvement of monocytic cells and the profiles of the chemokines and cytokines induced by this inflammation suggest an innate immune response. However, emerging data indicate that elements of the adaptive immune system could also be involved. As activation of an adaptive response requires antigen specificity, some researchers have hypothesized that T2DM evolves from an innate immune response to an autoimmune condition. In this Perspectives article, we present the arguments for and against this hypothesis and discuss which mechanisms could be involved in a putative switch from innate immunity to autoimmunity.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Concentrations of a proatherogenic gut microbe-generated metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), predict increased incident cardiovascular disease risks in multiple cohorts. TMAO concentrations are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but their prognostic value and relation to glycemic control are unclear. METHODS: We examined the relationship between fasting TMAO and 2 of its nutrient precursors, choline and betaine, vs 3-year major adverse cardiac events and 5-year mortality in 1216 stable patients with T2DM who underwent elective diagnostic coronary angiography. RESULTS: TMAO [4.4 mu mol/L (interquartile range 2.8 7.7 mu mol/L) vs 3.6 (2.3-5.7 mu mol/L); P < 0.001] and choline concentrations were higher in individuals with T2DM vs healthy controls. Within T2DM patients, higher plasma TMAO was associated with a significant 3.0-fold increased 3-year major adverse cardiac event risk (P < 0.001) and a 3.6-fold increased 5-year mortality risk (P < 0.00.1). Following adjustments for traditional risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glycohemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, increased TMAO concentrations remained predictive of both major adverse cardiac events and mortality risks in T2DM patients [e.g., quartiles 4 vs 1, hazard ratio 2.05 (95% CI, 1.31-3.20), P < 0.001; and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.37-3.14), P < 0.001, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting plasma concentrations of the proatherogenic gut microbe-generated metabolite TMAO are higher in diabetic patients and portend higher major adverse cardiac events and mortality risks independent of traditional risk factors, renal function, and relationship to glycemic control. (C) 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
Aims To assess the effects of renal impairment (RI) on the efficacy and safety of ipragliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods A cohort of Japanese patients with T2DM and mild to moderate RI and poor glycaemic control, despite diet/exercise therapy alone or diet/exercise therapy in combination with an oral hypoglycaemic agent (an α‐glucosidase inhibitor, a sulfonylurea, or pioglitazone), were randomized in a double‐blind manner to 50 mg ipragliflozin or placebo once daily for 24 weeks. The patients continued open‐label ipragliflozin for a 28‐week extension period (total treatment duration: 52 weeks). Results Ipragliflozin significantly decreased glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels and body weight from baseline to week 24 (last observation carried forward) compared with placebo in all patients with RI. The decreases in HbA1c and FPG levels were statistically significant in patients with mild RI, but not in patients with moderate RI. Ipragliflozin significantly reduced body weight in both RI groups. The improvements in glycaemic control were maintained in the 28‐week extension period. Ipragliflozin was associated with no clinically significant safety concerns, and its safety profiles were not influenced by the severity of RI. Conclusions Ipragliflozin significantly improved glycaemic control and body weight in patients with T2DM with mild RI, but did not improve glycaemic control in patients with moderate RI. Ipragliflozin is a valid treatment option for patients with mild RI but not those with moderate RI.