The words people use in their daily lives can reveal important aspects of their social and psychological worlds. With advances in computer technology, text analysis allows researchers to reliably and quickly assess features of what people say as well as subtleties in their linguistic styles. Following a brief review of several text analysis programs, we summarize some of the evidence that links natural word use to personality, social and situational fluctuations, and psychological interventions. Of particular interest are findings that point to the psychological value of studying particles-parts of speech that include pronouns, articles, prepositions, conjunctives, and auxiliary verbs. Particles, which serve as the glue that holds nouns and regular verbs together, can serve as markers of emotional state, social identity, and cognitive styles.
Abstract Objective Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates and substantial health care costs. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT) which includes psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, psychosocial influences on CP/CPPS only recently became a research focus. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics. Then, based on our results, diagnosis and treatment can be improved. Methods In a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA reporting guidelines we searched different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) using the broad search terms “chronic pelvic pain syndrome AND men”. Two raters independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias. Results We included 69 original research articles which considered psychosocial variables. We found studies investigating different psychosocial factors (pain catastrophizing, stress, personality factors, social aspects), co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and trauma-related disorders, somatization disorder, substance abuse) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition, there is a high risk of bias in most studies e.g. concerning the study design or the measures. Conclusions There is evidence suggesting that psychological factors are important in understanding CP/CPPS. However, research concentrated on a few aspects while the others were not covered adequately. We found evidence of a higher number of psychosocial factors and psychiatric co-morbidities than is currently included in the UPOINT system. More high quality research is needed to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, these factors should be incorporated into treatment approaches.
In this paper we define core research questions falling within the domain of behavioral and psychological aspects of B2B pricing. We then present the papers accepted for this special issue. Central research questions are, in our view, all those instances where decisions about price violate basic principles of rational choice. Decisions about price involve two main actors. First is the customer. We are interested in how customers' purchase decisions in B2B exhibit behavioral patterns that are inconsistent with rational choice models. Second is the manager. Managers set prices and in this process are equally susceptible to violating fundamental principles of rational choice. For this special issue we have been able to accept six papers. We welcome the debate that these papers are likely to start.
Awake brain surgery (ABS) in children remains a subject of controversial debate for the potential psychological limitations that are related to this type of procedure. However, the tolerance and benefits of ABS in adults advocate for increased application of ABS in children. In this study, we report the psychological assessment, evaluation algorithm, and outcome of pediatric patients, who underwent ABS for surgical treatment of lesions in eloquent areas. Psychological selection criteria and the specifications of psychological support are described. A retrospective review and analysis of psychological assessment and psychological outcome of pediatric patients, who underwent ABS between 2005 and 2018 at the Department of pediatric neurosurgery, University of Lyon, France, was performed. Long-term psychological outcomes are reported. ABS was proposed to 18 children aged between 9 and 17 years and their families. After psychological evaluation of the individual patient and their familial surrounding, five boys and 12 girls (n = 17) were accounted eligible for ABS. They underwent asleep-awake-asleep brain surgery with intraoperative testing. In 16 cases, ABS could be performed as planned. Psychological alterations were postoperatively observed in 3 patients, symptoms of a post-traumatic stress disorder in 1 patient. The precise preoperative evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio in children plays a crucial role in anticipating a good psychological outcome. Professional psychological preparation and support of the child and his or her family are the key elements for successful completion of ABS.
Objective: Chronic pain is common in HIV-infected individuals. Understanding HIV-infected patients' chronic pain experience not just from a biological, but also from a psychological perspective, is a critical first step toward improving care for this population. Our objective was to explore HIV-infected patients' perspectives on psychological aspects of chronic pain using in-depth qualitative interviews. Methods: Investigators engaged in an iterative process of independent and group coding until theme saturation was reached. Results: Of the 25 patients with chronic pain interviewed, 20 were male, 15 were younger than age 50, and 15 were African-American. Key themes that emerged included the close relationship between mood and pain; mood and pain in the context of living with HIV; use of alcohol/drugs to self-medicate for pain; and the challenge of receiving prescription pain medications while dealing with substance use disorders. Conclusions: The results suggest that psychological approaches to chronic pain treatment may be well received by HIV-infected patients.
Eating meat is deeply entrenched in Western culture. It is often associated with wealth and a highly nutritional diet; and for many people it is also an established habit that is difficult to change. The second half of the 20th century was a period of rapid growth in meat consumption, which resulted in intensified meat production. At the same time, eating meat has recently become subject to criticism for health-related, environmental or humanitarian reasons. This review aims to signal the potential consequences of a change of diet or switching to diets that are rich/poor in certain ingredients on the functioning of the hormonal and nervous system, which translates into changes in mood and behavior. This paper discusses the psychological phenomena which underlie the difficulty of changing one's food preferences and problems encountered while adding new products to the daily diet. Finally, this study summarizes the limitations of modifying eating habits that have resulted from established attitudes and habits.
Despite the increased scientific interest in the relationship between pacing and performance in marathon running, little information is available about the association of pacing with physiological and psychological parameters. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the role physical fitness and training characteristics on pacing in the 'Athens Classic Marathon.' Finishers in this race in 2017 (women, n = 26, age 40.8 +/- 9.4 years; men, n = 130, age 44.1 +/- 8.6 years) were analyzed for their pacing during the race, completed the Motivation of Marathon Scale (MOMS) and performed a series of physiological tests. Women and faster recreational runners adopted a more even pacing. A more even pacing was related with a higher aerobic capacity and lower muscle strength in men, but not in women. Men with more even pacing scored higher in psychological coping, self-esteem, life meaning, recognition and competition than their counterparts with less even pacing. Considering the increasing number of participants in marathon races, these findings might help a wide range of professionals (fitness trainers, physiologists, and psychologists) working with runners to optimize the pacing of their athletes.
Background: There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. Objective: We examined whether pretreatment and posttreatment levels of cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger and 1-y changes in these eating behaviors predict short- and long-term weight changes after surgical and conventional treatments of severe obesity. Design: Participants were from an ongoing, matched (nonrandomized) prospective intervention trial of the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. The current analyses included 2010 obese subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 1916 contemporaneously matched obese controls who received conventional treatment. Physical measurements (e.g., weight and height) and questionnaires (e.g., Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were completed before the intervention and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after the start of the treatment. Structural equation modeling was used as the main analytic strategy. Results: The surgery group lost more weight and reported greater decreases in disinhibition and hunger at 1- and 10-y follow-ups (all P < 0.001 in both sexes) than the control group did. Pretreatment eating behaviors were unrelated to subsequent weight changes in surgically treated patients. However, patients who had lower levels of 6-mo and 1-y disinhibition and hunger (beta = 0.13-0.29, P < 0.01 in men; beta = 0.11-0.28, P < 0.001 in women) and experienced larger 1-y decreases in these behaviors (beta = 0.31-0.48, P < 0.001 in men; beta = 0.24-0.51, P < 0.001 in women) lost more weight 2, 6, and 10 y after surgery. In control patients, larger 1-y increases in cognitive restraint predicted a greater 2-y weight loss in both sexes. Conclusion: A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions.