In the current scenario, the use of fossil fuel is increasing sharply in the global energy store and playing a highly hazardous role in the ecological system, besides contributing to global warming. Biodiesel is one of the most credible keys for addressing this issue. The present experimental study has been done on Kirloskar make TAF-1 model compression ignition (CI) engine, powered by Garcinia gummi-gutta methyl ester (GGME) biodiesel and its blends. Experimental results were correlated with those of mineral diesel. To start with, biodiesel was synthesized from Garcinia gummi-gutta seed oil, assisted by novel Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TL) enzyme linked biocatalyst transesterification. Using nanotechnology, ferric oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared using the coprecipitation method. The TL enzymes were covalently linked with magnetic Fe3O4 nanomaterial, powered using the immobilization method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. A large quantity of TL functional groups attached with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle in reaction with an active functional group in oils leads to improved efficiency and effective recycling via an external magnetic field. At the end of 74 h of reaction time with confined optimization conditions, the transesterification process yielded 93.08 % GGME. All the physiochemical properties of GGME blends were investigated as per ASTM standards. Raw GGME was blended with mineral diesel in various proportions, namely B10, B20, B30, B40, and B100. The fuel blends were analyzed in terms of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics. Test results revealed B20 (20 % GGME + 80 % diesel) blend as on par with mineral diesel in terms of brake thermal efficiency (BTE), unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), and carbon dioxide (CO2), followed by nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions. At 100 % load, cylinder pressure, the heat release rate (HRR), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions of B20 were significantly lower than mineral diesel. Overall, B20 was showcased as a reliable alternative fuel for the CI engine.
High-precision measurements by the ATLAS Collaboration are presented of inclusive W+ -> l(+) nu, W- -> l(-) (nu) over bar and Z/gamma* -> ll (l = e, mu) Drell-Yan production cross sections at the LHC. The data were collected in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV with an integrated luminosity of 4.6 fb(-1). Differential W+ and W- cross sections are measured in a lepton pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta(l)vertical bar < 2.5. Differential Z/gamma* cross sections are measured as a function of the absolute dilepton rapidity, for vertical bar y(ll)vertical bar < 3.6, for three intervals of dilepton mass, m(ll), extending from 46 to 150 GeV. The integrated and differential electron- and muon-channel cross sections are combined and compared to theoretical predictions using recent sets of parton distribution functions. The data, together with the final inclusive e(+/-) p scattering cross-section data from H1 and ZEUS, are interpreted in a next-to-next-to-leading-order QCD analysis, and a new set of parton distribution functions, ATLAS-epWZ16, is obtained. The ratio of strange-to-light sea-quark densities in the proton is determined more accurately than in previous determinations based on collider data only, and is established to be close to unity in the sensitivity range of the data. A new measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V-cs vertical bar is also provided.
The radiosynthesis and GMP validation of [11C]AMT for human use are described. Three consecutive batches were produced giving 940‐3790 MBq (4%‐17% RCY, decay corrected, based on [11C]CO2) of the tracer. The molar activity at the end of synthesis was 19 to 35 GBq/μmol, the radiochemical purity was ≥98%, and the enantiomeric purity was >99%. While the synthesis method was automated using a new generation of synthesis equipment, tracer production system developed in house, the method should be readily applicable to other synthesis platforms with minor modifications. A protocol for the radiosynthesis of [11C]AMT is presented. Gigabecquerel amounts of pure, ready‐to‐inject tracer was produced in 55 minutes from the end of bombardment.
Virus-like particles (VLPs) consisting of the influenza A virus proteins haemagglutinin (HA) and matrix protein (M1) represent a new alternative approach for vaccine design against influenza virus. Influenza VLPs can be fast and easily produced in sufficient amounts in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. Up to now, influenza VLPs have been produced in the Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf9. We compared VLP production in terms of yield and quality in two insect cell lines, namely Sf9 and the Trichoplusia ni cell line BTI-TN5B1-4 (High Five(TM)). Additionally we compared VLP production with three different HAs and two different M1s from influenza H1 and H3 strains including one swine-origin pandemic H1N1 strain. Comparison of the two cell lines showed dramatic differences in baculovirus background as well as in yield and particle density. Taken together, we consider the establishment of the BTI-TN5B1-4 cell line advantageous as production cell line for influenza VLPs.
This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well. In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced. Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.
18F]Flumazenil, which has the advantage of a longer half-life than 11C]flumazenil, is well known for determining of the central benzodiazepine receptor concentrations. However, 18F]flumazenil has not been widely used because fluctuating and relatively low yields render automatic production insufficient for routine and multicenter clinical trials. Here, we describe the results of a 2.5-year production study of 18F]flumazenil using an iodonium tosylate precursor, which allowed us to overcome the limitations of low and fluctuating radiochemical yields.We developed a clinically applicable production system by modifying a commercial synthesizer for the reliable and reproducible production of 18F]flumazenil for routine clinical studies. 18F]Flumazenil was prepared at 150 °C for 5 min in the presence of 4-methylphenyl-mazenil iodonium tosylate (4 mg), a radical scavenger (TEMPO, 1 mg), and 18F]KF/kryptofix 2.2.2 complex in N,N-dimethylformamide (1 ml). In the purification step, the final mixture was pretreated using different cartridges before performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. Finally, we measured the radiochemical yield and performed quality-control assays on 94 batches.After carrying out additional purification before HPLC separation using a C18 plus Sep-Pak cartridge, the radiochemical yield of 18F]flumazenil increased from 34.4 ± 9.7 % (without the pretreatment, n = 24) to 53.4 ± 9.0 % (n = 94), and the lifetime of the semi-preparative column was five times that of the column without the C18 plus Sep-Pak cartridge. The mean-specific activity of 18F]flumazenil was 572 ± 116 GBq/μmol at the end of synthesis, and the radiochemical purity was more than 99 %, as determined by analytical HPLC and radio-TLC. 18F]Flumazenil prepared using this method satisfied all quality-control test standards and was highly stable for up to 6 h after preparation.The results of the 2.5-year production study using an iodonium tosylate precursor indicate that 18F]flumazenil has commercial and routine clinical applicability.
Research highlights ► Biobutanol is an important renewable chemical building block and a superior next generation biofuel. ► Production of 1-butanol using solventogenic clostridia is a proven industrial fermentation that has been re-commercialised in China. ► Significant reductions in production cost can be achieved using low cost cellulosic feedstocks. Choice of microbial strain is critical to the success of the fermentation. ► Future work should focus on robust strains that can tolerate high solvent concentrations and feedstock inhibitors.
Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae.
Summary The maximum photosynthetic carboxylation rate (Vcmax) is an influential plant trait that has multiple scaling hypotheses, which is a source of uncertainty in predictive understanding of global gross primary production (GPP). Four trait‐scaling hypotheses (plant functional type, nutrient limitation, environmental filtering, and plant plasticity) with nine specific implementations were used to predict global Vcmax distributions and their impact on global GPP in the Sheffield Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (SDGVM). Global GPP varied from 108.1 to 128.2 PgC yr−1, 65% of the range of a recent model intercomparison of global GPP. The variation in GPP propagated through to a 27% coefficient of variation in net biome productivity (NBP). All hypotheses produced global GPP that was highly correlated (r = 0.85–0.91) with three proxies of global GPP. Plant functional type‐based nutrient limitation, underpinned by a core SDGVM hypothesis that plant nitrogen (N) status is inversely related to increasing costs of N acquisition with increasing soil carbon, adequately reproduced global GPP distributions. Further improvement could be achieved with accurate representation of water sensitivity and agriculture in SDGVM. Mismatch between environmental filtering (the most data‐driven hypothesis) and GPP suggested that greater effort is needed understand Vcmax variation in the field, particularly in northern latitudes.