The first part of this note deals with the importance of the polytechnical tradition for mathematical models. In the second part I discuss the question of the “semantic shift” in the mathematical usage of the word “model” (M. Epple), that means, the passage from concrete material objects to models in the modern sense of the word – abstract entities satisfying a certain system of axioms. My aim is to provide some new information on the theme and to open a new and in my opinion essential aspect – the polytechnical tradition – to look at it. The two parts are only in a loose connection. Der erste Teil dieser Note beschäftigt sich mit der Wichtigkeit der polytechnischen Tradition für die Geschichte der mathematischen Modelle. Der zweite Teil diskutiert die semantische Verschiebung (M. Epple) in der mathematischen Verwendung des Begriffs „Modell“ im 20. Jh. – von den materialen Modellen hin zu den abstrakten Modellen. Es werden einige neue Informationen bereit gestellt und die bislang unterschätzte Bedeutung der polytechnischen Schulen für die Geschichte der Modelle herausgearbeitet. Die beiden Teile sind weitgehend unabhängig voneinander.
Based on extensive field research that the author has conducted in eastern Germany since the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, this essay discusses the history of communist education in East Germany and its relevance for Western education today. Among the topics addressed are the differences between “propaganda” and “enlightenment” according to communist ideology, the structure of the East German system of education and extracurriculars, how that system fostered “textbook Reds,” and how its curricular materials portrayed the USA.
I trace the origins of teaching and research in physics and astronomy during the 17th and 18th centuries at the Academy of Turku (Åbo), which was relocated to Helsinki in 1827 and renamed as the Imperial Alexander University of Finland, and which in turn in 1917 became the University of Helsinki. I discuss the growth of physics in Helsinki during the 19th century, which culminated in the opening of a large new Physical Institute in 1911, pointing out the individuals responsible for these developments and the sites associated with them. I also discuss related events, such as the founding of a new astronomical observatory and a new magnetic observatory and the development of technical education in Helsinki. I conclude by discussing the construction of an accelerator laboratory and other important developments in physics in Helsinki after 1945.
O presente artigo analisa, inicialmente, a polissemia da categoria trabalho como resultante de uma construção histórico-social e, em nossa sociedade, com o sentido de dominação de classe. Em seguida discute a abordagem de Sérgio Lessa que sustenta que a perda da precisão semântica do vocábulo trabalho advém do abandono da análise imanente e ortodoxa do trabalho na perspectiva do livro I de O capital de Karl Marx, tendo como consequência a nãodistinção entre proletários e trabalhadores e a definição de quem é hoje a classe revolucionária. Esse abandono levaria autores da tradição crítica nas ciências sociais a darem adeus ao trabalho e a educadores desse mesmo campo terem a ilusão de dimensões positivas da ciência e tecnologia e da educação politécnica ou omnilateral dentro da sociedade capitalista. Numa mesma direção de análise, Paulo Tumolo critica os educadores que veem a possibilidade da educação politécnica e do trabalho como principio educativo dentro da sociedade capitalista. Com base em autores marxistas que pensam com Marx para além de Marx, o artigo conclui que o deslocamento da perspectiva imanente e heurística para estudos e pesquisas do processo histórico sobre trabalho, classe e classe revolucionária conduziu Lessa e Tumolo a análises centradas em antinomias. O abandono das contradições pode ter como consequência, certamente não intencional, um duplo risco. O primeiro é conduzir, no campo político, a um imobilismo e a um beco sem saída, colocando para um imaginário futuro a tarefa de superação do trabalho, da ciência e da técnica e da educação alienadores. O segundo, específico para o campo da educação, é de que, ao tratar as análises dos pesquisadores criticados, mesmo com as ressalvas feitas, como ilusões ou lemas sem consistência teórica, acaba reforçando posturas conservadoras e neoconservadoras ou pós-modernas, já hegemônicas nestes tempos de capitalismo tardio. The present article examines initially the polysemy of the category of labour as the result of a socio-historical construction and, in our society, with the meaning of class domination. It then discusses the approach of the Brazilian writer Sérgio Lessa, who holds that the loss of semantic precision of the word labour derives from abandoning the immanent and orthodox analysis of labour from the perspective of book I of Karl Marx's Capital and results in the non-distinction between proletarians and workers and the definition of who today is the revolutionary class. This abandonment, on the one hand, would lead authors of the critical tradition in the social sciences to give up the category of labour and educators, within the same field, to have illusions concerning the positive dimensions of science and technology and of polytechnical or omnilateral education in a capitalist society. In the same direction of analysis, the Brazilian Paulo Tumolo criticizes educators who see the possibility of polytecnical education and labour as an educational principle in a capitalist society. On the basis of Marxist authors who think with Marx beyond Marx, this article concludes that the displacement from the immanent and heuristic perspective to studies and research on the historical process of labour, class and revolutionary class have led Lessa and Tumolo to an antinomy-centred analysis. The abandonment of contradictions in their analyses may result in a double risk, although certainly not an intentional one. The first is to lead, in the political sphere, to immobilism and deadlock, leaving for an imaginary future the task of surpassing alienating labour, science, technique and education. The other risk, this specific to the field of education, is that by treating the analyses of the criticised researchers as illusions or mottos with no theoretical consistency, even with the reservations made, the conservative and neoconservative or post-modern postures already hegemonic in these times of late capitalism are reinforced. El artículo analisa, inicialmente, la polisemia de la categoría trabajo como resultado de una construcción histórico social y, en nuestra sociedad, con el sentido de dominación de clase. En seguida discute el planteo de Sérgio Lessa que sustenta que la pérdida de la presición semántica del vocablo trabajo viene del abandono del análisis inseparable y ortodoxa del trabajo en la perspectiva del libro I de O capital de Karl Marx, teniendo como consecuencia la no distinción entre proletarios y trabajadores y la definición de quien es hoy la clase revolucionaria. Ese abandono llevaría a autores de la tradición crítica en las ciencias sociales a despedirse del trabajo y a educadores de este mismo campo a tener la ilusión de dimensiones positivas de la ciencia y tecnología y de la educación politécnica u omnilateral dentro de la sociedad capitalista. En una misma dirección de análisis, Paulo Tumolo critica los educadores que ven la posibilidad de la educación politécnica y del trabajo como principio educativo dentro de la sociedad capitalista. Con base en autores marxistas que piensan con Marx para más allá de Marx, el artículo concluye que el dislocamiento de la perspectiva inseparable y heurística para estudios y pesquisas del proceso histórico sobre trabajo, clase y clase revolucionaria, condujo a Lessa y Tumolo a análisis centradas en antinomias. El abandono de las contradicciones puede tener como consecuencia, ciertamente no intencional, un duplo riesgo. El primero es conducir, en el campo político, a un inmovilismo y a un callejón sin salida, colocando para un futuro la tarea de superación del trabajo, de la ciencia y de la técnica y de la educación alienadora. El segundo, específico para el campo de la educación, es de que, al tratar los análisis de los pesquisadores criticados, mismo con las limitaciones hechas, como ilusiones o lemas sin cosistencia teórica, acaba reforzando posturas conservadoras y neoconservadoras o postmodernas, ya hegemónicas en estos tiempos de capitalismo tardío.
This column is a forum for discussion of mathematical communities throughout the world, and through all time. Our definition of "mathematical community" is the broadest: "schools" of mathematics, circles of correrspondence, mathematical societies, student organizations, extra-curricular educational activities (math camps, math museums, math clubs), and more. What we say about the communities is just as unrestricted. We welcome contributions from mathematicians of all kinds and in all places, and also from scientists, historians, anthropologists, and others.
AbstractWe describe briefly the current state of astronomical education in Ukraine, namely the secondary, higher, and post-graduating education systems. A special attention is paid to so called “scientific schools”, non-formal groups of scientists formed by recognised astronomers, which have played and continue to play an important rôle in development of the astronomy education system. Among the founders of scientific schools were the well-known professors Alexander Ya. Orlov (Odessa University), Nikolai P. Barabashov (Kharkiv University), Sergei K. Vsekhsvyatsky (Kyiv University), Semen Ya. Braude (Kharkiv Polytechnical Institute), and Vladimir P. Tsesevich (Odessa University). We also give a general review on the history of astronomy education during the 16th-18th centuries. In 2000 astronomy was reinstated into the current 12-year secondary education curriculum of Ukraine. At present, some elements of astronomical knowledge are included in the lessons of “Natural Sciences” for pupils in the 5th – 10th grades. Astronomy is included as a basic course both in general (non-specialised) schools (17 academic hours in the last 11th or 12th grade) and in lyceums of the natural sciences (34 academic hours in the 12th grade). It is included also as an optional course in the educational program of gymnasiums in humanities. Every year about 75 young persons enter the Ukrainian universities to become astronomers. Results of our monitoring of the efficiency of astronomical higher educational system indicate that about 80% of the entered university students finish their education in 5 years; 50% of those who finished the cursus were working in astronomy. Since 1992 more then 100 astronomers defend Theses of Cand. Sci. (similar to Ph.D) and about 40 astronomers defend Theses of Dr. Sci. (topmost scientific degree, similar to Dr. Hab.). One of our present-day problems is a brain drain of young scientists. About 50% of those who obtained Cand. Sci. degree work outside Ukraine. At the same time in Ukraine we have a lack of experienced persons to work in astronomical instrumentation and observations.
The essential role of yarn spinning in textile production is indisputable. In this context, spindle whorls, the basic spinning accessories that can be found in the archaeological record, are commonly discussed. Even though the importance of the technical specification of spindle whorls has been already recognized by some authors, their functional characteristics are usually limited to the basic parameters affecting their usage range (i.e., weight, diameter and height). And since the mass moment of inertia of spindle whorls is considered to be a salient index when discussing their technical variability, the descriptions are deficient. With this short study, we intend to implement further research with more complete and flexible frames for the description of spindle whorls, based on a simple and fast‐paced method of the angular mass measurement as well as relevant typology based on clear morphometrical criteria. On the basis of the examination of a small sample of Eneolithic artefacts (the South‐Eastern Group of the Funnel Beaker Culture, c. 3650 to 2800 bc), a case study of the functioning of spindle whorls is also conducted.
Since their re-discovery in the 1980s Georg von Charasoff's previously neglected contributions to the classical-Marxian approach to prices and income distribution, which anticipate concepts and analytical results of Piero Sraffa, John von Neumann, and Nobuo Okishio, have been appraised in several articles. Until recently, however, not much was known about Charasoff's life and the intellectual, political, and artistic circles in which he moved. The present paper fills this gap. It documents traces of Charasoff's life and of his intellectual preoccupations that have been assembled from various archive sources in Azerbaijan, France, Georgia, Germany, Russia, and Switzerland.
antonio favaro was born in padua on 21 may 1847 to a cultivated family of lower nobility. after having accomplished his studies in mathematics at the university of padua in 1866, he went to turin, where he specialized as an engineer at the scuola d’applicazione (polytechnical high school) in 1869. as early as 1872, he was appointed as extra-ordinary professor at the university of padua. for fifty years he taught graphical statics there. during different periods he also gave courses in infinitesimal calculus and projective geometry. since 1878 favaro, as one of the first in an italian university, also taught history of mathematics. he died in padua on 30 september 1922, shortly after his retirement.