“Political aspects” that enhance, but also undermine, the positive transformational power of public innovation policies are examined. As such, this paper follows Michał Kalecki in his 1943 paper that identifies the “political aspects” which enhance and undermine the positive transformational power of Keynesian full employment policies. Similarly, this paper provides a policy framework that identifies what government and business support as innovation policies. The role of innovation stems from Schumpeter's long-run perspective, but incorporates the more dynamic cyclical short-term and trend perspectives of Kalecki. This paper critiques the strategy of public innovation policy in general and derives policy implications.
This essay contributes to second generation fiscal federalism (SGFF), which traces the implications of incentives created by political and fiscal institutions. The approach explores how various forms of fiscal federalism work in the presence of political officials who, rather than being benevolent social planners, face various forms of political incentives. The paper focuses on three sets of positive models: First, it explores self-enforcing federalism; that is, how federal systems are held together given various tendencies for federal systems to become centralized or fall apart. Second, it considers how specific political institutions, such as democracy, interact with decentralization. Finally, it studies various political impediments to economic growth, again highlighting the interaction with decentralization.
Although the issue of energy security stands high on the scale of the European Union's priorities, there has been no single accepted definition of energy security thus far. In light of the global economic crisis and political instability, the issue of energy security is directly linked to geopolitical and macroeconomic stability. This paper offers a new method of measuring energy security, which unlike the existing indicators of energy stability, in addition to economic and environmental indicators, also includes the political and social aspects within the composite indicator of country risk. The new (ESI) is defined based on the application of (PCA). Analysis of the values of a new ESI indicator shows that energy security is greatly influenced by GDP per capita, country risk, carbon intensity, energy intensity, final energy consumption per capita and electricity prices, while the least importance rests with the share of renewable sources in energy consumption and energy dependence. The values of the Index by country are stable over the entire observed period, but significant differences are noticeable between countries. The highest index values are reported in Luxembourg, Sweden, Finland and Denmark, and the lowest in Bulgaria, Romania, Estonia and Poland. With the aim of robustness check, the results of EU member states rankings were compared to country rankings based on the . Compared to country rankings based on the , three countries recorded the same rank (Denmark, Check Republic and Bulgaria), and the biggest deviation of 9 ranking position was reported by Luxembourg. The results of the research show that there is a statistically important difference in the value of energy security index between the observed groups of countries classified according to the level of macroeconomic stability.
Despite possessing a very large potential of renewable energy sources, Australia has lagged behind other developed countries in embracing renewable energy. Various programs and policies have been devised and implemented by Australian governments. Nevertheless, the proportion of renewable energy in electricity generation in Australia has not increased significantly. This paper seeks to explain why Australia has difficulties in adopting renewable energy by using the Political Aspect of Innovation (PAI) framework to examine the causes and barriers that have blocked the taking up of renewable energy. The PAI framework is concerned specifically with public innovation policy in Australia and the way it aims to encourage and support investment in new technology development. The paper finally outlines some future suggestions for charting the progression of the Australian energy system toward a transformative sustainable future. ► We study renewable energy development barriers using political innovation framework. ► We identify 3 barriers: economic power, policy control and industrial power. ► Incumbent fossil fuel industry exerts strong barrier through positive feedback loop. ► New energy-related policies are developed for maintaining fossil fuel innovation. ► Losing job in the incumbent industry creates issue to hinder renewable development.
Understanding social conflict is one of the key problems of contemporary social sciences. This article views the phenomenon of social conflict as an important form of social interaction. Social conflict is seen as a manageable process, which can be controlled by an external force. Modern Russian society is characterized by an increase in the number of citizens expressing their dissatisfaction with governmental response to social demands. This article is an attempt to analyze social conflict in modern society as a phenomenon that also has a political component. Pertaining to the stated goal, the article focuses on the problems of social inequality in present-day reality. It is stated that mitigation of socio-political tensions is related to government policy, and a high level of social differentiation of society can pose a threat to political stability. The increase in the degree of social inequality is related to inequitable social interchange that takes place in society. Exceeding the permissible degree of inequality leads to a large difference in the standard of living of social groups, which is regarded as discrimination and infringement of rights of certain demographics. This circumstance causes social tensions and serves as a ground for the emergence, development and spread of social conflicts. The novelty and practical significance of the work consists in presenting a comprehensive analysis of how social and political conflicts are interrelated and, in case of contemporary Russian reality, intertwined. The author examines the specific character of social conflicts in modern Russia and points out the need for development and use of methods - adequate to the current state of information technology - that would effectively regulate social conflicts.
Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process. Thus, studies that aim to ‘build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP’ abound. Conversely, there is little emphasis on the political aspects of HiAP implementation. Neglecting the role of politics in shaping the use of HiAP is problematic, since health and the strategies by which it is promoted are partially political.This glossary addresses the politics gap in the existing literature by drawing on theoretical concepts from political, policy, and public health sciences to articulate a framework for studying how political mechanisms influence HiAP implementation. To this end, the glossary forms part of an on-going multiple explanatory case study of HiAP implementation, HARMONICS (HiAP Analysis using Realist Methods on International Case Studies, harmonics-hiap.ca), and is meant to expand on a previously published glossary addressing the topic of HiAP implementation more broadly. Collectively, these glossaries offer a conceptual toolkit for understanding how politics explains implementation outcomes of HiAP.
AbstractOver the last 15 years, frailty has become a dominant discourse on late life. Taken-for-granted knowledge and practice can be seen in initiatives such as the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics’ White Book on Frailty. This paper begins with an overview of key themes on frailty from the biomedical literature, followed by critical literature in the social sciences and humanities. It discusses the tensions within the biomedical field, frailty as a social construction and ‘social imaginary’, practices of frailty as historically linked to political systems of care, and frailty as an emotional and relational experience. It then draws on a critical discourse analysis to assess the 2016 White Book on Frailty. Drawing on the idea of ‘significant absences’, the paper highlights the gaps that exist where the social and emotional understandings and political readings of frailty are concerned. The paper concludes by outlining the need to recognise the ‘politics of frailty’ including the power relations that are deeply embedded in the knowledge and practices surrounding frailty, and to incorporate older people's experience and ideas of vulnerability into research, policy and care practice.
In modern conditions, aggravation of problems of ensuring national security of Russia is observed. It is caused by influence of a complex of factors. Authors consider the situation developing in the sphere of ensuring economic and military security of the country. For the analysis both empirical materials and expert estimates, and objective statistical data from the Russian and international sources are used. Authors prove a conclusion about existence of close interrelation of military and economic security, impossibility and inexpediency of their separate consideration in the theoretical analysis that generates need of correction of institutional mechanisms of their providing. At the same time, the conclusion is drawn on priority of start in Russia of mechanisms of sustained economic growth: without solution of this task, ensuring national security in the military and economic sphere will be, according to authors, extremely difficult.
The purpose of the article is to study the changes in gas consumption under the influence of changes in foreign policy. The influence of domestic political decisions will also be investigated. A significant reduction in gas use was stimulated by the 2008 crisis and subsequent political events. Termination of cross-subsidies forced to reduce the volume of gas consumption by the population. This did not happen almost all the years of independence of Ukraine. The main incentive for reducing gas consumption by both industry and the population throughout the entire period was the price of gas. Despite the high level of gas consumption in Ukraine, during the entire period of independence of the country, a comprehensive strategy to reduce gas consumption was not developed. Price methods that were applied and caused a reduction in consumption were dictated by the external economic situation. Despite the use of market-based gas pricing for consumers, pricing issues remain open.