Team sports like ice hockey require high levels of performance in numerous physical characteristics such as strength, power, and endurance. As such, training is associated with a potential interference effect. The present study randomized well‐trained ice hockey players into a block periodization group (BP; n = 8), focusing on the development of either strength and power or endurance on a weekly, undulating basis, and a traditional group (TRAD; n = 8), performing a mixed training model, with simultaneous focus of strength, power, and endurance training every week. During the 6‐week intervention, the two groups performed equal volumes and intensities of both strength, power, and endurance training. BP led to larger improvements than TRAD in knee extension peak torque at 180° s −1 (6.6 ± 8.7 vs −4.2% ± 6.3%, respectively; P < 0.05) and maximal oxygen uptake (5.1 ± 3.3 vs 1.1% ± 3.5%, respectively; P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward larger improvements in BP than TRAD in peak torque in knee extension at 60° s −1 (2.1 ± 2.5 vs −0.1% ± 2.5%, respectively; P < 0.1, effect size = 0.83) and mean power output during a 30‐s cycling sprint (4.1 ± 2.5 vs −0.3% ± 5.9%, respectively; P < 0.1, effect size = 0.89). Overall, BP exhibited a moderate to large effect size for all these variables compared to TRAD. The present study suggests that block periodization of strength and endurance training induces superior adaptations in both strength and endurance capacities in well‐trained ice hockey players compared to traditional mixed organization, despite similar training volume and intensity.
Periodization is a systematic training calendar designed to provide variations in performance targeting, while maximizing results and reducing the potential for overtraining. When provided across multiple weeks, termed a mesocycle, it may also incorporate active recovery periods using specified drills designed to translate neuromuscular gains into targeted functional abilities. There are a number of models that can be used when applying periodization to resistance training (RT). Among the most common are the linear (LP) and daily fixed non-linear (NLP) models. It is currently unknown whether an optimal periodization strategy exists that will maximize benefits for older adults; therefore, we compared the impact of these two periodization models on neuromuscular and functional measures in a group of older persons living independently in the community. Thirty-six older adults, 58–80 years of age, were randomly assigned to either a LP (n = 16; 69.3 ± 4.6 y) or NLP (n = 14; 68.9 ± 6.7 y) group. The LP group performed 12 weeks of training comprised of separate 4-week strength and power training cycles, each followed by a 2-week recovery period incorporating translational exercises. The NLP group performed the strength, power, and translational training on three separate days during the week. Neuromuscular testing included seated chest press and leg press strength and power tests, while physical function testing included the gallon jug shelf test, laundry transfer test, floor stand-up, chair-to-stand test, and 8 foot timed up-and-go. 3 (time) × 2 (sex) × 2 (group) repeated measures ANOVA revealed both periodization strategies were equally effective at inducing neuromuscular and functional improvements and that men generally produced more strength and power than women. Both LP and NLP can be used to improve strength, power, and functional performance in healthy untrained older adults when strength, power and functional training cycles are involved. Therefore, personal preference and variety should be considered when deciding which approach to use, provided high-speed power and translational recovery components are included.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists during a 12‐week preparation period. One group of cyclists performed block periodization ( BP ; n = 8), wherein every fourth week constituted five sessions of high‐intensity aerobic training ( HIT ), followed by 3 weeks of one HIT session. Another group performed a more traditional organization ( TRAD ; n = 7), with 12 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions. The HIT was interspersed with low‐intensity training ( LIT ) so that similar total volumes of both HIT and LIT were performed in the two groups. BP achieved a larger relative improvement in VO 2max than TRAD (8.8 ± 5.9% vs 3.7 ± 2.9%, respectively, P < 0.05) and a tendency toward larger increase in power output at 2 mmol/ L [la − ] (22 ± 14% vs 10 ± 7%, respectively, P = 0.054). Mean effect size ( ES ) of the relative improvement in VO 2max , power output at 2 mmol/ L [la − ], hemoglobin mass, and mean power output during 40‐min all‐out trial revealed moderate superior effects of BP compared with TRAD training ( ES range was 0.62–1.12). The present study suggests that BP of endurance training has superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with TRAD .
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in trained cyclists. One group of cyclists performed block periodization, wherein the first week constituted five sessions of high‐intensity aerobic training ( HIT ), followed by 3 weeks of one weekly HIT session and focus on low‐intensity training ( LIT ) ( BP ; n = 10, VO 2max = 62 ± 2 mL/kg/min ). Another group of cyclists performed a more traditional organization, with 4 weeks of two weekly HIT sessions interspersed with LIT ( TRAD ; n = 9, VO 2max = 63 ± 2 mL/kg/min ). Similar volumes of both HIT and LIT was performed in the two groups. While BP increased VO 2max , peak power output ( W max ) and power output at 2 mmol/ L [la − ] by 4.6 ± 3.7%, 2.1 ± 2.8%, and 10 ± 12%, respectively ( P < 0.05), no changes occurred in TRAD . BP showed relative improvements in VO 2max compared with TRAD ( P < 0.05). Mean effect size ( ES ) of the relative improvement in VO 2max , W max , and power output at 2 mmol/ L [la − ] revealed large to moderate effects of BP training compared with TRAD training ( ES = 1.34, ES = 0.85, and ES = 0.71, respectively). The present study suggests that block periodization of training provides superior adaptations to traditional organization during a 4‐week endurance training period, despite similar training volume and intensity.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in elite cross‐country skiers approaching the competition period. During the 5‐week intervention period, one group performed block periodization ( BP ; n = 10) with 5 and 3 high‐intensity sessions ( HIT ) during the first and third training week. One HIT was performed during the remaining weeks in BP , while the group performing traditional training organization ( TRAD , n = 9) performed two weekly HIT except during the third week where they performed three HIT . HIT were interspersed with low‐intensity training ( LIT ) and both groups performed similar total amount of both HIT and LIT during the intervention. BP achieved a larger relative increase in peak power output and power output at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L than TRAD (4 ± 4 vs −3 ± 6% and 11 ± 10 vs 2 ± 4%, respectively, both P < 0.01). BP also increased maximal oxygen uptake by 2 ± 2% ( P < 0.05), while no changes occurred in TRAD . The effect sizes of the relative improvement in these measurements revealed moderate effects of BP vs TRAD training. The present study suggests that block periodization of endurance training have superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with traditional organization.
The nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) stands out as the dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation that plays a prominent role in the modeling and understanding of the wave phenomena relevant to many fields of nonlinear physics. The question of random input problems in the one-dimensional and integrable NLSE enters within the framework of integrable turbulence, and the specific question of the formation of rogue waves (RWs) has been recently extensively studied in this context. The determination of exact analytic solutions of the focusing 1D-NLSE prototyping RW events of statistical relevance is now considered as the problem of central importance. Here we address this question from the perspective of the inverse scattering transform (IST) method that relies on the integrable nature of the wave equation. We develop a conceptually new approach to the RW classification in which appropriate, locally coherent structures are specifically isolated from a globally incoherent wave train to be subsequently analyzed by implementing a numerical IST procedure relying on a spatial periodization of the object under consideration. Using this approach we extend the existing classifications of the prototypes of RWs from standard breathers and their collisions to more general nonlinear modes characterized by their nonlinear spectra.
The present research aimed to analyze the modification in performance, body composition, and autonomic modulation of reverse and traditional linear training periodization in amateur triathletes. We analyzed running and swimming performance, strength manifestation, body composition, and autonomic modulation before and after a traditional linear training periodization (four weeks of volume-based training plus four weeks of intensity-based training plus two-week tapering), a reverse linear training periodization (four weeks of intensity-based training plus four weeks of volume-based training plus two-week tapering), and a free training control physical active group (10-week free training) in 32 amateur athletes. Independently of the periodization model, the combination of two four-week mesocycles followed by a two-week taper is an efficiency strategy to avoid overreaching, obtaining an increase in parasympathetic modulation. Moreover, both types of training periodization proposed in this study do not modified body composition of amateur triathletes. Also, compared with traditional periodization, reverse periodization efficiently improves horizontal jump performance. Finally, reverse and traditional periodization were an effective strategy to improve running biomechanical, performance, and physiological variables, as well as efficient periodization strategies to improve swimming technical ability, aerobic, and anaerobic swimming performance.
Background: "Sleep-low" consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability-low glycogen recovery after "train high" glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training ("train low") the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention-one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g.kg(-1).day(-1)), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the "sleep-low" strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.
In short-term studies, block periodization of high-intensity training (HIT) has been shown to be an effective strategy that enhances performance and related physiological factors. However, long-term studies and detailed investigations of macro, meso, and micro-periodization of HIT blocks in world-class endurance athletes are currently lacking. In a recent study, we showed that the world's most successful cross-country (XC) skier used two different periodization models with success throughout her career. One including extensive use of HIT blocks, namely BP, and one using a traditional method namely TRAD. In this study, we compare BP with TRAD in two comparable successful seasons and provide a detailed description of the annual use of HIT blocks in BP. The participant is the most-decorated winter Olympian, with 8 Olympic gold medals, 18 world championship titles, and 114 world cup victories. Training data was categorized by training form (endurance, strength, and speed), intensity [low (UT), moderate (MIT), and HIT], and mode (running, cycling, and skiing/roller skiing). No significant difference was found in the total endurance training load between BP and TRAD. However, training volume in BP was lower compared to TRAD (15 +/- 6 vs. 18 +/- 7 h/wk, P = 0.001), mainly explained by less LIT (13 +/- 5 vs. 15 +/- 5 h/wk, P = 0.004). Lower volume of MIT was also performed in BP compared to TRAD (13 vs. 38 sessions/year), whereas the amount of HIT was higher in BP (157 vs. 77 sessions/year). While BP included high amounts of HIT already from the first preparation period, followed by a reduction toward the competition period, TRAD had a progressive increase in HIT toward the competition period. In BP, the athlete performed seven HIT blocks, varying from 7 to 11 days, each including 8-13 HIT sessions. This study provides novel insights into successful utilization of two different periodization models in the worlds best XC skier, and illustrates the macro, meso and micro-periodization of HIT blocks to increase the overall amount of HIT.