New Public Management (NPM) was the catch phrase of the reforms in the public research and higher education sector for the last decades. The Postulated effect of the NPM reforms is increased efficiency in governmental resource spending on the Public higher education and research institutions. Though backed by theoretical considerations, this hypothesis has hardly been tested empirically. Using a unique dataset of German research units, this paper deals with the influence that NPM mechanisms have on research performance. Controlling for different university mission, it can be shown that both greater internal hierarchy (especially "strong presidents") as well as greater operative flexibility for the researchers themselves increase research performance. Some of the variables, including the presence of research councils, have a positive effect on research efficiency under some definitions of research Output. Oil the other hand, the introduction of resource accounting systems has a negative impact. All in all, we Conclude that the public science sector reforms implemented in most of the Western economies were heading into the right direction by providing greater performance incentives and increasing allocative efficiency in resource spending. Also we provide some ideas of how NPM may be combined in order to construct a sensible governance system. We conclude that the mechanisms should be selected based on the mission of the university. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Public service motivation theory suggests that public service motivation is positively related to work attitudes, but person-organization fit theory assumes that person-organization fit completely mediates the relationship between public service motivation and work attitudes of public employees. This article investigates which theory better predicts attitudes toward work, such as job satisfaction and organizational commitment of public employees, by testing hypotheses on (1) whether public service motivation directly influences work attitudes, or (2) whether person-organization fit mediates the relationship between public service motivation and work attitudes, or (3) whether both hypotheses are true. Using survey data on civil servants in Korea, this article shows that public service motivation has not only a direct effect on but also an indirect effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment through its influence on person-organization fit.
Background:Hyogo Prefecture is the 2nd prefecture in Japan, after Kanagawa, to enact a ban with penal code on smoking in public places, although the restriction is partial.Methods and Results:This study included consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were admitted to 33 major hospitals in the Hyogo District during the 12 months before implementation of the legislation and during the 24 months thereafter. Consecutive patients with ACS from Gifu Prefecture who were admitted to 20 major hospitals were enrolled as geographical controls. The number of ACS admissions did not change from the years 2012–2015 in both Hyogo District (1,774 in the pre-year, 1,784 in the 1st year, and 1,720 in the 2nd year) and Gifu Prefecture (1,226 in the pre-year, 1,174 in the 1st year, and 1,206 in the 2nd year). However, a clear reduction was observed in the subanalysis for Kobe City (895 in the preceding year, 830 (−7.3%) in the 1st year, and 792 (−11.5%) in the 2nd year), where adherence to the smoking ban was higher than in other Hyogo districts.Conclusions:The primary endpoint did not show a significant change. However, the subanalysis showed a significant decrease in ACS admissions in Kobe City. These results suggest that ACS reduction may depend on the degree of adherence to a smoking ban. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2528–2532)
Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro‐level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two‐way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political‐administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow the gap between public administration and psychology .
This article analyzes how Swedish authorities handled strong public demands to reduce an insect population that constituted a human nuisance. The empirical data consist of interviews and public records. The analysis finds that the public demands were seen as a particular risk, with public outrage and loss of political legitimacy becoming part of the risk panorama that the responsible agencies had to handle. Four mechanisms in particular were used to regulate public responses: dissemination of uncertainty; development of symbolic action; individualization of responsibility; and naturalization of the problem. Through these mechanisms, governmental agencies succeeded in influencing stakeholders' understandings and modifying their demands. Thus, what took place was a process of governing not only nature, but also people.
Demand is a major potential source of innovation, yet the critical role of demand as a key driver of innovation has still to be recognised in government policy. This article discusses public procurement as one of the key elements of a demand-oriented innovation policy. The paper starts by signaling the new significance of public procurement for innovation policy strategies at the EU level and in a range of European countries. It then defines the concept of public procurement and embeds this concept within a taxonomy of innovation policies. The rationales and justifications of public procurement policies to spur innovation are discussed, followed by a consideration of the challenges and potential pitfalls as well as appropriate institutional arrangements and strategies, including some recent empirical examples of good practice. It concludes by confronting the public procurement approach with two of the most common objections to it and by considering future prospects. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are growing in popularity as a governing model for delivery of public goods and services. PPPs have existed since the Roman Empire, but their expansion into traditional public projects today raises serious questions about public accountability. This article examines public accountability and its application to government and private firms involved in PPPs. An analytical framework is proposed for assessing the extent to which PPPs provide (or will provide) goods and services consistent with public sector goals of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Six dimensions—risk, costs and benefits, political and social impacts, expertise, collaboration, and performance measurement—are incorporated into a model that assists public managers in improving partnerships' public accountability.
Public-private partnerships are enjoying a global resurgence in popularity, but there is still much confusion around notions of partnership, what can be learned from our history with partnerships, and what is new about the partnership forms that are in vogue today. Looking at one particular family of public-private partnerships, the long-term infrastructure contract, this article argues that evaluations thus far point to contradictory results regarding their effectiveness. Despite their continuing popularity with governments, greater care is needed to strengthen future evaluations and conduct such assessments away from the policy cheerleaders.
I explored the underlying linkage structure between relational indicators in the organization- public relationship setting to establish which dimension takes precedence over the others, and whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship among the various dimensions. The results showed that control mutuality was the primary relationship indicator, affecting trust and satisfaction. As predicted, satisfaction affected trust. Finally, trust significantly affected commitment. In the university-student relationship setting, the results showed that trust and satisfaction played a mediating role among the dimensions. If it is accepted that the operative effect of relationship management is to initiate, maintain, and enhance the organization's relationship with the strategic public, then control mutuality might play an antecedent role in the development of satisfaction and trust. Thus, sharing the decision-making process with the public is more likely to increase the level of trust and satisfaction.