Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells that display the capacity to generate the tissue in which they reside. MSC have been used as progenitor cells to engineer cartilage implants that can be used to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions, or as trophic producers of bioactive factors to initiate endogenous regenerative activities in the arthritic joint. Targeted gene therapy might further enhance the capacity of MSC for chondrogenesis. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein genomic manipulation technique, target-gene-modified MSC would be a promising therapeutic option for regeneration of diseased joints in the treatment of RA.
The cellular origin of Ewing tumor (ET), a tumor of bone or soft tissues characterized by specific fusions between and genes, is highly debated. Through gene expression analysis comparing ETs with a variety of normal tissues, we show that the profiles of different -silenced Ewing cell lines converge toward that of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Moreover, upon silencing, two different Ewing cell lines can differentiate along the adipogenic lineage when incubated in appropriate differentiation cocktails. In addition, Ewing cells can also differentiate along the osteogenic lineage upon long-term inhibition of . These in silico and experimental data strongly suggest that the inhibition of may allow Ewing cells to recover the phenotype of their MSC progenitor.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is poised to establish a new clinical paradigm; however, recent trials have produced mixed results. Although MSC were originally considered to treat connective tissue defects, preclinical studies revealed potent immunomodulatory properties that prompted the use of MSC to treat numerous inflammatory conditions. Unfortunately, although clinical trials have met safety endpoints, efficacy has not been demonstrated. We believe the challenge to demonstrate efficacy can be attributed in part to an incomplete understanding of the fate of MSC following infusion. Here, we highlight the clinical status of MSC therapy and discuss the importance of cell-tracking techniques, which have advanced our understanding of the fate and function of systemically infused MSC and might improve clinical application.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to secrete exosomes that are cardioprotective. Here, we demonstrated that MSC exosome, a secreted membrane vesicle, is immunologically active. MSC exosomes induced polymyxin-resistant, MYD88-dependent secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) expression in a THP1-Xblue, a THP-1 reporter cell line with an NFκB-SEAP reporter gene. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide, they induced high levels of anti-inflammatory IL10 and TGFβ1 transcript at 3 and 72 h, and much attenuated levels of pro-inflammatory IL1B, IL6, TNFA and IL12P40 transcript at 3-h. The 3-h but not 72-h induction of cytokine transcript was abrogated by MyD88 deficiency. Primary human and mouse monocytes exhibited a similar exosome-induced cytokine transcript profile. Exosome-treated THP-1 but not MyD88-deficient THP-1 cells polarized activated CD4 + T cells to CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) at a ratio of one exosome-treated THP-1 cell to 1,000 CD4 + T cells. Infusion of MSC exosomes enhanced the survival of allogenic skin graft in mice and increased Tregs.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and imaging results of patients who received intra-articular injections of autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Methods The study group comprised 18 patients (6 men and 12 women), among whom the mean age was 54.6 years (range, 41 to 69 years). In each patient the adipose synovium was harvested from the inner side of the infrapatellar fat pad by skin incision extension at the arthroscopic lateral portal site after the patient underwent arthroscopic debridement. After stem cells were isolated, a mean of 1.18 × 106 stem cells (range, 0.3 × 106 to 2.7 × 106 stem cells) were prepared with approximately 3.0 mL of platelet-rich plasma (with a mean of 1.28 × 106 platelets per microliter) and injected into the selected knees of patients. Clinical outcome was evaluated with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Lysholm score, and the visual analog scale (VAS) for grading knee pain. We also compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data collected both preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Results Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index scores decreased significantly ( P < .001) from 49.9 points preoperatively to 30.3 points at the final follow-up (mean follow-up, 24.3 months; range, 24 to 26 months). Lysholm scores also improved significantly ( P < .001) by the last follow-up visit, increasing from a mean preoperative value of 40.1 points to 73.4 points by the end of the study. Likewise, changes in VAS scores throughout the follow-up period were also significant ( P = .005); the mean VAS score decreased from 4.8 preoperatively to 2.0 at the last follow-up visit. Radiography showed that, at the final follow-up point, the whole-organ MRI score had significantly improved from 60.0 points to 48.3 points ( P < .001). Particularly notable was the change in cartilage whole-organ MRI score, which improved from 28.3 points to 21.7 points ( P < .001). Further analysis showed that improvements in clinical and MRI results were positively related to the number of stem cells injected. Conclusions The results of our study are encouraging and show that intra-articular injection of infrapatellar fat pad–derived mesenchymal stem cells is effective for reducing pain and improving knee function in patients being treated for knee osteoarthritis. Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series.
Intercellular exchange of protein and RNA-containing microparticles is an increasingly important mode of cell-cell communication. Here we investigate if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) known for secreting therapeutic paracrine factors also secrete RNA-containing microparticles. We observed that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived MSC conditioned medium contained small RNAs (less than 300 nt) encapsulated in cholesterol-rich phospholipid vesicles as evidenced by their RNase sensitivity only in the presence of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-based cell lysis buffer, phospholipase A2 and a chelator of cholesterol, cyclodextrin and the restoration of their lower than expected density by detergent or phospholipase A2 treatment. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) such as hsa-let-7b and hsa-let-7g were present in a high precursor (pre)- to mature miRNA ratio by microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The pre-miRNAs were cleaved to mature miRNA by RNase III in vitro. High performance liquid chromatography-purified RNA-containing vesicles have a hydrodynamic radius of 55-65 nm and were readily taken up by H9C2 cardiomyocytes. This study suggests that MSCs could facilitate miRNA-mediated intercellular communication by secreting microparticles enriched for pre-miRNA.
Significant efforts have been directed to understanding the factors that influence the lineage commitment of stem cells. This paper demonstrates that cell shape, independent of soluble factors, has a strong influence on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow. When exposed to competing soluble differentiation signals, cells cultured in rectangles with increasing aspect ratio and in shapes with pentagonal symmetry but with different subcellular curvature—and with each occupying the same area—display different adipogenesis and osteogenesis profiles. The results reveal that geometric features that increase actomyosin contractility promote osteogenesis and are consistent with in vivo characteristics of the microenvironment of the differentiated cells. Cytoskeletal-disrupting pharmacological agents modulate shape-based trends in lineage commitment verifying the critical role of focal adhesion and myosin-generated contractility during differentiation. Microarray analysis and pathway inhibition studies suggest that contractile cells promote osteogenesis by enhancing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular related kinase (ERK1/2) activation in conjunction with elevated wingless-type (Wnt) signaling. Taken together, this work points to the role that geometric shape cues can play in orchestrating the mechanochemical signals and paracrine/autocrine factors that can direct MSCs to appropriate fates.
Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla). Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is used for treatment of many diseases. The paracrine role of MSCs in tissue regeneration is attracting particular attention. We investigate the role of MSC exosomes in skeletal muscle regeneration. MSC exosomes promote myogenesis and angiogenesis in vitro, and muscle regeneration in an in vivo model of muscle injury. Although MSC exosomes had low concentrations of muscle-repair-related cytokines, a number of repair-related miRNAs were identified. This study suggests that the MSC-derived exosomes promote muscle regeneration by enhancing myogenesis and angiogenesis, which is at least in part mediated by miRNAs such as miR-494.
Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for the treatment of difficult diseases. As MSCs represent a rare cell population, ex vivo expansion of MSCs is indispensable to obtain sufficient amounts of cells for therapies and tissue engineering. However, spontaneous differentiation and aging of MSCs occur during expansion and the molecular mechanisms involved have been poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Human MSCs in early and late passages were examined for their expression of genes involved in osteogenesis to determine their spontaneous differentiation towards osteoblasts in vitro, and of genes involved in self-renewal and proliferation for multipotent differentiation potential. In parallel, promoter DNA methylation and hostone H3 acetylation levels were determined. We found that MSCs underwent aging and spontaneous osteogenic differentiation upon regular culture expansion, with progressive downregulation of TERT and upregulation of osteogenic genes such as Runx2 and ALP. Meanwhile, the expression of genes associated with stem cell self-renewal such as Oct4 and Sox2 declined markedly. Notably, the altered expression of these genes were closely associated with epigenetic dysregulation of histone H3 acetylation in K9 and K14, but not with methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of most of these genes. bFGF promoted MSC proliferation and suppressed its spontaneous osteogenic differentiation, with corresponding changes in histone H3 acetylation in TERT, Oct4, Sox2, Runx2 and ALP genes. Conclusions/Significance: Our results indicate that histone H3 acetylation, which can be modulated by extrinsic signals, plays a key role in regulating MSC aging and differentiation.