BM mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) support multiple myeloma (MM) cell growth, but little is known about the putative mechanisms by which the BM microenvironment plays an oncogenic role in this disease. Cell-cell communication is mediated by exosomes. In this study, we showed that MM BM-MSCs release exosomes that are transferred to MM cells, thereby resulting in modulation of tumor growth in vivo. Exosomal microRNA (miR) content differed between MM and normal BM-MSCs, with a lower content of the tumor suppressor miR-15a. In addition, MM BM-MSC-derived exosomes had higher levels of oncogenic proteins, cytokines, and adhesion molecules compared with exosomes from the cells of origin. Importantly, whereas MM BM-MSC-derived exosomes promoted MM tumor growth, normal BM-MSC exosomes inhibited the growth of MM cells. In summary, these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that exosome transfer from BM-MSCs to clonal plasma cells represents a previously undescribed and unique mechanism that highlights the contribution of BM-MSCs to MM disease progression.
Objective The relationship of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) with pericytes and fibroblasts has not been established thus far, although they share many markers of primitive marrow stromal cells and the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials. Materials and Methods We compared MSCs from adult or fetal tissues, MSC differentiated in vitro, fibroblasts and cultures of retinal pericytes obtained either by separation with anti-CD146 or adhesion. The characterizations included morphological, immunophenotypic, gene-expression profile, and differentiation potential. Results Osteogenic, adipocytic, and chondrocytic differentiation was demonstrated for MSC, retinal perivascular cells, and fibroblasts. Cell morphology and the phenotypes defined by 22 markers were very similar. Analysis of the global gene expression obtained by serial analysis of gene expression for 17 libraries and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of 39 selected genes from 31 different cell cultures, revealed similarities among MSC, retinal perivascular cells, and hepatic stellate cells. Despite this overall similarity, there was a heterogeneous expression of genes related to angiogenesis, in MSC derived from veins, artery, perivascular cells, and fibroblasts. Evaluation of typical pericyte and MSC transcripts, such as NG2, CD146, CD271, and CD140B on CD146 selected perivascular cells and MSC by real-time polymerase chain reaction confirm the relationship between these two cell types. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between fibroblast-specific protein-1 and CD146 transcripts observed on pericytes, MSC, and fibroblasts highlight their potential use as markers of this differentiation pathway. Conclusion Our results indicate that human MSC and pericytes are similar cells located in the wall of the vasculature, where they function as cell sources for repair and tissue maintenance, whereas fibroblasts are more differentiated cells with more restricted differentiation potential.
Here, for the first time, we test a novel hypothesis that systemic treatment of stroke with exosomes derived from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) promote neurovascular remodeling and functional recovery after stroke in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by tail vein injection of 100 μg protein from MSC exosome precipitates or an equal volume of vehicle phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 6/group) 24 hours later. Animals were killed at 28 days after stroke and histopathology and immunohistochemistry were employed to identify neurite remodeling, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis. Systemic administration of MSC-generated exosomes significantly improved functional recovery in stroke rats compared with PBS-treated controls. Axonal density and synaptophysin-positive areas were significantly increased along the ischemic boundary zone of the cortex and striatum in MCAo rats treated with exosomes compared with PBS control. Exosome treatment significantly increased the number of newly formed doublecortin (a marker of neuroblasts) and von Willebrand factor (a marker of endothelial cells) cells. Our results suggest that intravenous administration of cell-free MSC-generated exosomes post stroke improves functional recovery and enhances neurite remodeling, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis and represents a novel treatment for stroke.
The immunosuppressive activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is well documented. However, the therapeutic benefit is completely unpredictable, thus raising concerns about MSC efficacy. One of the affecting factors is the unresolved conundrum that, despite being immunosuppressive, MSCs are undetectable after administration. Therefore, understanding the fate of infused MSCs could help predict clinical responses. Using a murine model of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), we demonstrate that MSCs are actively induced to undergo perforin-dependent apoptosis by recipient cytotoxic cells and that this process is essential to initiate MSC-induced immunosuppression. When examining patients with GvHD who received MSCs, we found a striking parallel, whereby only those with high cytotoxic activity against MSCs responded to MSC infusion, whereas those with low activity did not. The need for recipient cytotoxic cell activity could be replaced by the infusion of apoptotic MSCs generated ex vivo. After infusion, recipient phagocytes engulf apoptotic MSCs and produce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which is ultimately necessary for effecting immunosuppression. Therefore, we propose the innovative concept that patients should be stratified for MSC treatment according to their ability to kill MSCs or that all patients could be treated with ex vivo apoptotic MSCs.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the focus of intensive efforts worldwide directed not only at elucidating their nature and unique properties but also developing cell-based therapies for a diverse range of diseases. More than three decades have passed since the original formulation of the concept, revolutionary at the time, that multiple connective tissues could emanate from a common progenitor or stem cell retained in the postnatal bone marrow. Despite the many important advances made since that time, substantial ambiguities still plague the field regarding the nature, identity, function, mode of isolation and experimental handling of MSCs. These uncertainties have a major impact on their envisioned therapeutic use.
The considerable therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has generated markedly increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. However, investigators report studies of MSC using different methods of isolation and expansion, and different approaches to characterizing the cells. Thus it is increasingly difficult to compare and contrast study outcomes, which hinders progress in the field. To begin to address this issue, the Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy proposes minimal criteria to define human MSC. First, MSC must be plastic-adherent when maintained in standard culture conditions. Second, MSC must express CD105, CD73 and CD90, and lack expression of CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79α or CD19 and HLA-DR surface molecules. Third, MSC must differentiate to osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts . While these criteria will probably require modification as new knowledge unfolds, we believe this minimal set of standard criteria will foster a more uniform characterization of MSC and facilitate the exchange of data among investigators.
Abstract Surface topography impacts on cell growth and differentiation, but it is not trivial to generate defined surface structures and to assess the relevance of specific topographic parameters. In this study, we have systematically compared in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on a variety of groove/ridge structures. Micro- and nano-patterns were generated in polyimide using reactive ion etching or multi beam laser interference, respectively. These structures affected cell spreading and orientation of human MSCs, which was also reflected in focal adhesions morphology and size. Time-lapse demonstrated directed migration parallel to the nano-patterns. Overall, surface patterns clearly enhanced differentiation of MSCs towards specific lineages: 15 μm ridges increased adipogenic differentiation whereas 2 μm ridges enhanced osteogenic differentiation. Notably, nano-patterns with a periodicity of 650 nm increased differentiation towards both osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. However, in absence of differentiation media surface structures did neither induce differentiation, nor lineage-specific gene expression changes. Furthermore, nanostructures did not affect the YAP/TAZ complex, which is activated by substrate stiffness. Our results provide further insight into how structuring of tailored biomaterials and implant interfaces – e.g. by multi beam laser interference in sub-micrometer scale – do not induce differentiation of MSCs per se , but support their directed differentiation.
Abstract The response of osteoprogenitors to calcium (Ca2+ ) is of primary interest for both normal bone homeostasis and the clinical field of bone regeneration. The latter makes use of calcium phosphate-based bone void fillers to heal bone defects, but it is currently not known how Ca2+ released from these ceramic materials influences cells in situ. Here, we have created an in vitro environment with high extracellular Ca2+ concentration and investigated the response of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) to it. Ca2+ enhanced proliferation and morphological changes in hMSCs. Moreover, the expression of osteogenic genes is highly increased. A 3-fold up-regulation of BMP-2 is observed after only 6 h and pharmaceutical interference with a number of proteins involved in Ca2+ sensing showed that not the calcium sensing receptor, but rather type L voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in mediating the signaling pathway between extracellular Ca2+ and BMP-2 expression. MEK1/2 activity is essential for the effect of Ca2+ and using microarray analysis, we have identified c-Fos as an early Ca2+ response gene. We have demonstrated that hMSC osteogenesis can be induced via extracellular Ca2+ , a simple and economic way of priming hMSCs for bone tissue engineering applications.
Stem cells regulate their fate by binding to, and contracting against, the extracellular matrix. Recently, it has been proposed that in addition to matrix stiffness and ligand type, the degree of coupling of fibrous protein to the surface of the underlying substrate, that is, tethering and matrix porosity, also regulates stem cell differentiation. By modulating substrate porosity without altering stiffness in polyacrylamide gels, we show that varying substrate porosity did not significantly change protein tethering, substrate deformations, or the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stromal cells and marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Varying protein-substrate linker density up to 50-fold changed tethering, but did not affect osteogenesis, adipogenesis, surface-protein unfolding or underlying substrate deformations. Differentiation was also unaffected by the absence of protein tethering. Our findings imply that the stiffness of planar matrices regulates stem cell differentiation independently of protein tethering and porosity.
Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and debilitating joint disorder. There is no effective medical therapy for the condition because of limited understanding of its pathogenesis. We show that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is activated in subchondral bone in response to altered mechanical loading in an anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) mouse model of osteoarthritis. TGF-beta 1 concentrations are also high in subchondral bone from humans with osteoarthritis. High concentrations of TGF-beta 1 induced formation of nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) clusters, leading to formation of marrow osteoid islets accompanied by high levels of angiogenesis. We found that transgenic expression of active TGF-beta 1 in osteoblastic cells induced osteoarthritis, whereas inhibition of TGF-beta activity in subchondral bone attenuated the degeneration of articular cartilage. In particular, knockout of the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbRII) in nestin-positive MSCs led to less development of osteoarthritis relative to wild-type mice after ACLT. Thus, high concentrations of active TGF-beta 1 in subchondral bone seem to initiate the pathological changes of osteoarthritis, and inhibition of this process could be a potential therapeutic approach to treating this disease.