The mammalian retromer is a multimeric protein complex involved in mediating endosome-to-trans-Golgi-network retrograde transport of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor. The retromer is composed of two subcomplexes, one containing SNX1 and forming a membrane-bound coat, the other comprising VPS26, VPS29 and VPS35 and being cargo-selective. In yeast, an additional sorting nexin - Vps17p - is a component of the membrane bound coat. It remains unclear whether the mammalian retromer requires a functional equivalent of Vps17p. Here, we have used an RNAi loss-of-function screen to examine whether any of the other 30 mammalian sorting nexins are required for retromer-mediated endosome-to-trans-Golgi-network retrieval of the cationin-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor. Using this screen, we identified two proteins, SNX5 and SNX6, that, when suppressed, induced a phenotype similar to that observed upon suppression of known retromer components. Whereas SNX5 and SNX6 colocalised with SNX1 on early endosomes, in immunoprecipitation experiments only SNX6 appeared to exist in a complex with SNX1. Interestingly, suppression of SNX5 and/or SNX6 resulted in a significant loss of SNX1, an effect that seemed to result from post-translational regulation of the SNX1 level. Such data suggest that SNX1 and SNX6 exist in a stable, endosomally associated complex that is required for retromer-mediated retrieval of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor. SNX5 and SNX6 may therefore constitute functional equivalents of Vps17p in mammals.
Epithelial cells have separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains with distinct compositions. After delivery to one surface, proteins can be endocytosed and then recycled, degraded or transcytosed to the opposite surface. Proper sorting into the transcytotic pathway is essential for maintaining polarity, as most proteins are endocytosed many times during their lifespan. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) transcytoses polymeric IgA (pIgA) from the basolateral to the apical surface of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. However, the molecular machinery that controls polarized sorting of pIgR-pIgA and other receptors is only partially understood. The retromer is a multimeric protein complex, originally described in yeast, which mediates intracellular sorting of Vps10p, a receptor that transports vacuolar enzymes. The yeast retromer contains two sub-complexes. One includes the Vps5p and Vps17p subunits, which provide mechanical force for vesicle budding. The other is the Vps35p-Vps29p-Vps26p subcomplex, which provides cargo specificity. The mammalian retromer binds to the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which sorts lysosomal enzymes from the trans-Golgi network to the lysosomal pathway. Here, we show a function for the mammalian Vps35-Vps29-Vps26 retromer subcomplex in promoting pIgR-pIgA transcytosis.
The mammalian retromer protein complex, which consists of three proteins – Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35 – in association with members of the sorting nexin family of proteins, has been implicated in the trafficking of receptors and their ligands within the endosomal/lysosomal system of mammalian cells. A bioinformatic analysis of the mouse genome identified an additional transcribed paralog of the Vps26 retromer protein, which we termed Vps26B. No paralogs were identified for Vps29 and Vps35. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the two paralogs of Vps26 become evident after the evolution of the chordates. We propose that the chordate Vps26‐like gene published previously be renamed Vps26A to differentiate it from Vps26B. As for Vps26A, biochemical characterization of Vps26B established that this novel 336 amino acid residue protein is a peripheral membrane protein. Vps26B co‐precipitated with Vps35 from transfected cells and the direct interaction between these two proteins was confirmed by yeast 2‐hybrid analysis, thereby establishing Vps26B as a subunit of the retromer complex. Within HeLa cells, Vps26B was found in the cytoplasm with low levels at the plasma membrane, while Vps26A was predominantly associated with endosomal membranes. Within A549 cells, both Vps26A and Vps26B co‐localized with actin‐rich lamellipodia at the cell surface. These structures also co‐localized with Vps35. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy confirmed the association of Vps26B with the plasma membrane in a stable HEK293 cell line expressing cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)‐Vps26B. Based on these observations, we propose that the mammalian retromer complex is located at both endosomes and the plasma membrane in some cell types.
We have previously shown that the putative mammalian retromer components sorting nexins 1 and 2 (Snx1 and Snx2) result in embryonic lethality when simultaneously targeted for deletion in mice, whereas others have shown that Hβ58 (also known as mVps26), another retromer component, results in similar lethality when targeted for deletion. In the current study, we address the genetic interaction of these mammalian retromer components in mice. Our findings reveal a functional interaction between Hβ58, SNX1, and SNX2 and strongly suggest that SNX2 plays a more critical role than SNX1 in retromer activity during embryonic development. This genetic evidence supports the existence of mammalian retromer complexes containing SNX1 and SNX2 and identifies SNX2 as an important mediator of retromer biology. Moreover, we find that mammalian retromer complexes containing SNX1 and SNX2 have an essential role in embryonic development that is independent of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor trafficking.
Endocytic sorting of signalling receptors between recycling and degradative pathways is a key cellular process controlling the surface complement of receptors and, accordingly, the cell's ability to respond to specific extracellular stimuli. The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical seven-transmembrane signalling receptor that recycles rapidly and efficiently to the plasma membrane after ligand-induced endocytosis. β2AR recycling is dependent on the receptor's carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand and Rab4 (refs , ). This active sorting process is required for functional resensitization of β2AR-mediated signalling. Here we show that sequence-directed sorting occurs at the level of entry into retromer tubules and that retromer tubules are associated with Rab4. Furthermore, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) serves as an essential adaptor protein linking β2ARs to the retromer tubule. SNX27 does not seem to directly interact with the retromer core complex, but does interact with the retromer-associated Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The present results identify a role for retromer in endocytic trafficking of signalling receptors, in regulating a receptor-linked signalling pathway, and in mediating direct endosome-to-plasma membrane traffic.
The Arp2/3 complex regulates endocytosis, sorting, and trafficking, yet the Arp2/3-stimulating factors orchestrating these distinct events remain ill defined. WASH (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog) is an Arp2/3 activator with unknown function that was duplicated during primate evolution. We demonstrate that WASH associates with tubulin and localizes to early endosomal subdomains, which are enriched in Arp2/3, F-actin, and retromer components. Although WASH localized with activated receptors, it was not essential for endocytosis. However, WASH did regulate retromer-mediated retrograde CI-MPR trafficking, which required its association with endosomes, Arp2/3-directed F-actin regulation, and tubulin interaction. Moreover, WASH exists in a multiprotein complex containing FAM21, which links WASH to endosomes and is required for WASH-dependent retromer-mediated sorting. Significantly, without WASH, retromer tubulation was exaggerated, supporting a model wherein WASH links retromer-mediated cargo containing tubules to microtubules for Golgi-directed trafficking and generates F-actin-driven force for tubule scission.
The generation of cAMP by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and its termination are currently thought to occur exclusively at the plasma membrane of cells. Under existing models of receptor regulation, this signal is primarily restricted by desensitization of the receptors through their binding to beta-arrestins. However, this paradigm is not consistent with recent observations that the parathyroid hormone receptor type 1 (PTHR) continues to stimulate cAMP production even after receptor internalization, as beta-arrestins are known to rapidly bind and internalize activated PTHR. Here we show that binding to beta-arrestin1 prolongs rather than terminates the generation of cAMP by PTHR, and that cAMP generation correlates with the persistence of arrestin-receptor complexes on endosomes. PTHR signaling is instead turned off by the retromer complex, which regulates the movement of internalized receptor from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Thus, binding by the retromer complex regulates the sustained generation of cAMP triggered by an internalized GPCR.
Retromer is a multi-protein complex that recycles transmembrane cargo from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and the plasma membrane. Defects in retromer impair various cellular processes and underlie some forms of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Although retromer was discovered over 15 years ago, the mechanisms for cargo recognition and recruitment to endosomes have remained elusive. Here, we present an X-ray crystallographic analysis of a four-component complex comprising the VPS26 and VPS35 subunits of retromer, the sorting nexin SNX3, and a recycl ing signal from the divalent cation transporter DMT1-II. This analysis identifies a binding site for canonical recycling signals at the interface between VPS26 and SNX3. In addition, the structure highlights a network of cooperative interactions among the VPS subunits, SNX3, and cargo that couple signal-recognition to membrane recruitment.
Retromer is a multiprotein complex that trafficks cargo out of endosomes. The neuronal retromer traffics the amyloid-precursor protein (APP) away from endosomes, a site where APP is cleaved into pathogenic fragments in Alzheimer's disease. Here we determined whether pharmacological chaperones can enhance retromer stability and function. First, we relied on the crystal structures of retromer proteins to help identify the 'weak link' of the complex and to complete an in silico screen of small molecules predicted to enhance retromer stability. Among the hits, an in vitro assay identified one molecule that stabilized retromer against thermal denaturation. Second, we turned to cultured hippocampal neurons, showing that this small molecule increases the levels of retromer proteins, shifts APP away from the endosome, and decreases the pathogenic processing of APP. These findings show that pharmacological chaperones can enhance the function of a multiprotein complex and may have potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases.