Latin Americans arguably represent the largest recently admixed populations in the world. This reflects a history of massive settlement by immigrants (mostly Europeans and Africans) and their variable admixture with Natives, starting in 1492. This process resulted in the population of Latin America showing an extensive genetic and phenotypic diversity. Here we review how genetic analyses are being applied to examine the demographic history of this population, including patterns of mating, population structure and ancestry. The admixture history of Latin America, and the resulting extensive diversity of the region, represents a natural experiment offering an advantageous setting for genetic association studies. We review how recent analyses in Latin Americans are contributing to elucidating the genetic architecture of human complex traits.
Abstract Coccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America and has been reported (human and zoonotic cases) in México, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America is unknown due to lack of clinical awareness and limited access to laboratory diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis is as prevalent in Mexico as in the endemic regions of the United States. The number of cases reported in Brazil and Argentina has progressively increased during the last decade, including areas that were not considered as endemic. Genetic studies have shown that the prevalent species in Latin America is Coccidioides posadasii. Coccidioides immitis has been reported sporadically in indigenous cases from Mexico and Colombia. Coccidioidomycosis and tuberculosis share some risk factors such as immunosuppression and residing in areas endemic for these conditions, so their coexistence in the same patient is not uncommon in Latin America. In most regions, clinical diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis is based on direct sputum examination and histopathology results from biopsies or autopsies. This would explain why primary coccidioidomycosis is rarely diagnosed, and most cases published are about chronic pulmonary or disseminated disease.
This article provides the authors’ view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted.
Summary Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.
Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions.
Background: The epidemiology of candidemia varies depending on the geographic region. Little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Latin America. Methods: We conducted a 24-month laboratory-based survey of candidemia in 20 centers of seven Latin American countries. Incidence rates were calculated and the epidemiology of candidemia was characterized. Results: Among 672 episodes of candidemia, 297 (44.2%) occurred in children (23.7% younger than 1 year), 36.2% in adults between 19 and 60 years old and 19.6% in elderly patients. The overall incidence was 1.18 cases per 1,000 admissions, and varied across countries, with the highest incidence in Colombia and the lowest in Chile. Candida albicans (37.6%), C. parapsilosis (26.5%) and C. tropicalis (17.6%) were the leading agents, with great variability in species distribution in the different countries. Most isolates were highly susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Fluconazole was the most frequent agent used as primary treatment (65.8%), and the overall 30-day survival was 59.3%. Conclusions: This first large epidemiologic study of candidemia in Latin America showed a high incidence of candidemia, high percentage of children, typical species distribution, with C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis accounting for the majority of episodes, and low resistance rates.
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral illness that causes hundreds of millions of infections each year. No specific therapy exists. In this randomized, controlled trial involving Latin American children, a tetravalent dengue vaccine showed significant protective efficacy. Dengue is a mosquito-borne disease that is present in many parts of the world. From 2003 through 2013, the number of dengue cases that were reported to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) increased by a factor of five. 1 – 3 The disease is caused by one of four closely related virus serotypes from the genus flavivirus. Mosquitoes that transmit the virus are present in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and in some temperate areas of the United States, Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. 4 Dengue is an increasing public health problem despite efforts to manage epidemics through vector control. 5 Several . . .
This paper, by analyzing how narrow task-related personality traits relate to different entrepreneurial behavior in Latin America, contributes to the literature that is moving the focus from the big five personality traits to narrow traits, the literature that is searching for answers of how the environment mediates the relationship between traits and entrepreneurial behavior, and the literature that analyzes the differences among different types of entrepreneurs. We exploit a large and rich database that has individual-level information for nine Latin American countries and one USA city. The evidence indicates that there are some narrow personality traits that are positively associated with entrepreneurial behavior in Latin America, that this association is weaker for individuals who show weaker entrepreneurial behavior, and that the environment seems to be relevant to understanding the differences in the personality traits of Latin American and USA entrepreneurs.