The structure of Earthʼs deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core. Using an extensive new data set of handpicked absolute travel time observations of the inner core phase PKIKP, we find that the data are best explained by variations in anisotropy between two hemispheres and do not require an innermost inner core. We demonstrate that observations of an innermost inner core are an artifact from averaging over lateral anisotropy variations. More significantly we show that hemispherical variations in anisotropy, previously only imaged in the upper inner core, continue to its centre. The eastern region has 0.5–1.5% anisotropy, whereas the western region has 3.5–8.8% anisotropy increasing with depth, with a slow direction at 57–61° to the Earthʼs rotation axis at all depths. Such anisotropy is consistent with models of aligned hcp or bcc iron aggregates.
We present a new method to characterize unresolved point sources (PSs) generalizing traditional template fits to account for non-Poissonian photon statistics. We apply this method to Fermi Large Area Telescope gamma-ray data to characterize PS populations at high latitudes and in the Inner Galaxy. We find that PSs (resolved and unresolved) account for similar to 50% of the total extragalactic gamma-ray background in the energy range similar to 1.9 to 11.9 GeV. Within 10 degrees of the Galactic Center with vertical bar b vertical bar >= 2 degrees, we find that similar to 5%-10% of the flux can be accounted for by a population of unresolved PSs distributed consistently with the observed similar to GeV gamma-ray excess in this region. The excess is fully absorbed by such a population, in preference to dark-matter annihilation. The inferred source population is dominated by near-threshold sources, which may be detectable in future searches.
The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC), a high-wave-energy littoral system, extends 160 km alongshore, generally north of the large Columbia River, and 10–15 km in across-shelf distance from paleo-beach backshores to about 50 m present water depths. Onshore drill holes (19 in number and 5–35 m in subsurface depth) and offshore vibracores (33 in number and 1–5 m in subsurface depth) constrain inner-shelf sand grain sizes (sample means 0.13–0.25 mm) and heavy mineral source indicators (> 90% Holocene Columbia River sand) of the inner-shelf facies (≥ 90% fine sand). Stratigraphic correlation of the transgressive ravinement surface in onshore drill holes and in offshore seismic reflection profiles provide age constraints (0–12 ka) on post-ravinement inner-shelf deposits, using paleo-sea level curves and radiocarbon dates. Post-ravinement deposit thickness (1–50 m) and long-term sedimentation rates (0.4–4.4 m ka ) are positively correlated to the cross-shelf gradients (0.36–0.63%) of the transgressive ravinement surface. The total post-ravinement fill volume of fine littoral sand (2.48 × 10 m ) in the inner-shelf represents about 2.07 × 10 m year fine sand accumulation rate during the last 12 ka, or about one third of the estimated middle- to late-Holocene Columbia River bedload or sand discharge (5–6 × 10 m year ) to the littoral zone. The fine sand accumulation in the inner-shelf represents post-ravinement accommodation space resulting from 1) geometry and depth of the transgressive ravinement surface, 2) post-ravinement sea-level rise, and 3) fine sand dispersal in the inner-shelf by combined high-wave-energy and geostrophic flow/down-welling drift currents during major winter storms.
The shutdown of star formation in galaxies is generally termed "quenching." Quenching may occur through a variety of processes, e.g., active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, stellar feedback, or the shock heating of gas in the dark matter halo. However, which mechanism(s) is, in fact, responsible for quenching is still in question. This paper addresses quenching by searching for traces of possible quenching processes through their effects on galaxy structural parameters such as stellar mass (M-*), M-*/r(e), surface stellar mass density (similar to M-*/r(e)(2)), and Sersic index (n). We analyze the rest-frame U - B color correlations versus these structural parameters using a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.5 2.3 galaxies. We hypothesize that their Sersic values may be distorted by bursts of star formation, AGNs, and/or poor fits, leading us to consider central surface stellar mass density, Sigma*(1) (kpc), as an alternative to Sersic index. Not only does Sigma*(1) (kpc) correct the outliers, but it also forms a tight relationship with color, suggesting that the innermost structure of galaxies is most physically linked with quenching. Furthermore, at z similar to 0.65, the majority of the blue cloud galaxies cannot simply fade onto the red sequence since their GIM2D bulge masses are only half as large on average as the bulge masses of similar red sequence galaxies, thus demonstrating that stellar mass must absolutely increase at the centers of galaxies as they quench. We discuss a two-stage model for quenching in which galaxy star formation rates are controlled by their dark halos while they are still in the blue cloud and a second quenching process sets in later, associated with the central stellar mass buildup. The mass buildup is naturally explained by any non-axisymmetric features in the potential, such as those induced by mergers and/or disk instabilities. However, the identity of the second quenching agent is still unknown. We have placed our data catalog online.
Inner speech is a common experience for many but hard to measure empirically. The Varieties of Inner Speech Questionnaire (VISQ) has been used to link everyday phenomenology of inner speech – such as inner dialogue – to various psychopathological traits. However, positive and supportive aspects of inner speech have not always been captured. This study presents a revised version of the scale – the VISQ-R – based on factor analyses in two large samples: respondents to a survey on inner speech and reading ( = 1412) and a sample of university students ( = 377). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure including three previous subscales ( , , and in inner speech), an factor, and a new factor. Confirmatory factor analysis then replicated this structure in sample 2. Hierarchical regression analyses also replicated a number of relations between inner speech, hallucination-proneness, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, and dissociation.
The light distribution in the inner few kiloparsecs of the Milky Way is recovered nonparametrically from a dust-corrected near-infrared COBE/DIRBE surface brightness map of the inner Galaxy. The best fits to the photometry are obtained when the Sun is assumed to lie similar to 14 +/- 4 pc above the plane. The recovered density distributions clearly show an elongated three-dimensional bulge set in a highly non-axisymmetric disc. In the favoured models, the bulge has axis ratios 1:0.6:0.4 and semi-major axis length similar to 2 kpc. Its nearer long axis lies in the first quadrant. The bulge is surrounded by an elliptical disc that extends to similar to 2 kpc on the minor axis and similar to 3.5 kpc on the major axis. In all models there is a local density minimum similar to 2.2 kpc down the minor axis. The subsequent maximum similar to 3 kpc down the minor axis (corresponding to l = similar or equal to -22 degrees and l similar or equal to 17 degrees) may be associated with the Lagrange point Lq From this identification and the length of the bulge-bar, we infer a pattern speed Omega(b) similar or equal to 60-70 km s(-1) kpc(-1) for the bar. Experiments in which pseudo-data derived from models with spiral structure were deprojected under the assumption that the Galaxy is either eight-fold or four-fold symmetric indicate that the highly non-axisymmetric discs recovered from the COBE data could reflect spiral structure within the Milky Way if that structure involves density contrasts greater than greater than or similar to 3 at near-infrared wavelengths, These experiments indicate that the angle phi(0) between the Sun-centre line and a major axis of the bulge lies near 20 degrees.
Highlights • Multiple mechanisms, including diffusion-retention, may be involved in INM targeting. • Nuclear localization and INM sorting sequences are present on many INM proteins. • SUN and LEM domain proteins are targeted using a combination of transport pathways. • A Golgi retrieval sequence is required for INM localization of Sun2. • Non-canonical transport mechanisms may exist alongside NPC-dependent transport.
OBJECTIVE-To conduct a bedside study to determine the factors driving insulin noncompliance in inner-city patients with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-We analyzed socioeconomic and psychological factors in 164 adult patients with DKA who were admitted to Grady Hospital between July 2007 and August 2010, including demographics, diabetes treatment, education, and mental illness. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Short Form-36 surveys were used to screen for depression and assess quality of life. RESULTS-The average number of admissions was 4.5 +/- 7 per patient. A total of 73 patients presented with first-time DKA, and 91 presented with recurrent DKA; 96% of patients were African American. Insulin discontinuation was the leading precipitating cause in 68% of patients; other causes were new-onset diabetes (10%), infection (15%), medical illness (4%), and undetermined causes (3%). Among those who stopped insulin, 32% gave no reasons for stopping, 27% reported lack of money to buy insulin, 19% felt sick, 15% were away from their supply, and 5% were stretching insulin. Compared with first-time DKA, those with recurrent episodes had longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), were a younger age at the onset of diabetes (P = 0.04), and had higher rates of depression (P = 0.04), alcohol (P = 0.047) and drug (P < 0.001) abuse, and homelessness (P = 0.005). There were no differences in quality-of-life scores, major psychiatric illnesses, or employment between groups. CONCLUSIONS-Poor adherence to insulin therapy is the leading cause of recurrent DKA in inner-city patients. Several behavioral, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and educational factors contribute to poor compliance. The recognition of such factors and the institution of culturally appropriate interventions and education programs might reduce DKA recurrence in minority populations.
Chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)] is considered as a severe environmental pollutant, due to its highly toxic and carcinogenic properties. Therefore, low cost, highly sensitive sensors for the determination of Cr(VI) are highly demanded. It is well-known that highly luminescent carbon dots (CDs) have been successfully applied as fluorescent nanosensors for pH, ions, and molecular substances. In the present work, we have demonstrated an on-off fluorescent CD probe for detecting Cr(VI) based on the inner filter effect (IFE) because the absorption bands of Cr(IV) fully covered the emission and excitation bands of CDs. This CD-based nanosensor provides obvious advantages of simplicity, convenience, rapid response, high selectivity, and sensitivity, which have potential application for the detection of Cr(VI) in the environmental industry. In addition, because Cr(VI) can be reduced to low valent chromium species easily by reductant, resulting in the elimination of the WE and recovery of CD fluorescence, the CD-Cr(VI) mixture could behave as an off-on type fluorescent probe for reductant. We employed ascorbic acid (AA) as an example molecule to demonstrate this off-on type fluorescent probe.
Hi-GAL (Herschel InfraRed Galactic Plane Survey) is a large-scale survey of the Galactic plane, performed with Herschel in five infrared continuum bands between 70 and 500 mu m. We present a band-merged catalogue of spatially matched sources and their properties derived from fits to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and heliocentric distances, based on the photometric catalogues presented in Molinari et al., covering the portion of Galactic plane -71.degrees 0 < l < 67.degrees 0. The band-merged catalogue contains 100 922 sources with a regular SED, 24 584 of which show a 70-mu m counterpart and are thus considered protostellar, while the remainder are considered starless. Thanks to this huge number of sources, we are able to carry out a preliminary analysis of early stages of star formation, identifying the conditions that characterize different evolutionary phases on a statistically significant basis. We calculate surface densities to investigate the gravitational stability of clumps and their potential to form massive stars. We also explore evolutionary status metrics such as the dust temperature, luminosity and bolometric temperature, finding that these are higher in protostellar sources compared to pre-stellar ones. The surface density of sources follows an increasing trend as they evolve from pre-stellar to protostellar, but then it is found to decrease again in themajority of the most evolved clumps. Finally, we study the physical parameters of sources with respect to Galactic longitude and the association with spiral arms, finding only minor or no differences between the average evolutionary status of sources in the fourth and first Galactic quadrants, or between 'on-arm' and 'interarm' positions.