In the field of noncovalent interactions a new paradigm has recently become popular. It stems from the analysis of molecular electrostatic potentials and introduces a label, which has recently attracted enormous attention. The label is σ-hole, and it was first used in connection with halogens. It initiated a renaissance of interest in halogenated compounds, and later on, when found also on other groups of atoms (chalcogens, pnicogens, tetrels and aerogens), it resulted in a new direction of research of intermolecular interactions. In this review, we summarize advances from about the last 10 years in understanding those interactions related to σ-hole. We pay particular attention to theoretical and computational techniques, which play a crucial role in the field.
The σ-hole and π-hole are the regions with positive surface electrostatic potential on the molecule entity; the former specifically refers to the positive region of a molecular entity along extension of the Y-Ge/P/Se/X covalent σ-bond (Y = electron-rich group; Ge/P/Se/X = Groups IV-VII), while the latter refers to the positive region in the direction perpendicular to the σ-framework of the molecular entity. The directional noncovalent interactions between the σ-hole or π-hole and the negative or electron-rich sites are named σ-hole bond or π-hole bond, respectively. The contributions from electrostatic, charge transfer, and other terms or Coulombic interaction to the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond were reviewed first followed by a brief discussion on the interplay between the σ-hole bond and the π-hole bond as well as application of the two types of noncovalent interactions in the field of anion recognition. It is expected that this review could stimulate further development of the σ-hole bond and π-hole bond in theoretical exploration and practical application in the future.
The catalytic dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form aldimines represents an environmentally benign methodology in organic chemistry. This has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts. We present the dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines to form imines and H2 that is catalyzed, for the first time, by a complex of the earth-abundant Mn. Detailed mechanistic study was carried out with the aid of NMR spectroscopy, intermediate isolation, and X-ray analysis.
Therapeutic effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) are limited by cancer hypoxia because the PDT process is dependent on O2 concentration. Herein, we design biocompatible manganese ferrite nanoparticle-anchored mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MFMSNs) to overcome hypoxia, consequently enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of PDT. By exploiting the continuous O2-evolving property of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles through the Fenton reaction, MFMSNs relieve hypoxic condition using a small amount of nanoparticles and improve therapeutic outcomes of PDT for tumors in vivo. In addition, MFMSNs exhibit T2 contrast effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), allowing in vivo tracking of MFMSNs. These findings demonstrate great potential of MFMSNs for theranostic agents in cancer therapy.
Plasma- and chemical-grafted amidoxime/carbon nanofiber hybrids (p-AO/CNFs and c-AO/CNFs) were utilized to remove 238U(VI) and 241Am(III) from aqueous solutions, seawater, and groundwater. Characteristic results indicated more nitrogen-containing groups in p-AO/CNFs compared to c-AO/CNFs. The maximum adsorption capacities of p-AO/CNFs at pH 3.5 and T = 293 K (588.24 mg of 238U(VI)/g and 40.79 mg of 241Am(III)/g from aqueous solutions, respectively) were significantly higher than those of c-AO/CNFs (263.18 and 22.77 mg/g for 238U(VI) and 241Am(III), respectively), which indicated that plasma-grafting was a highly effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly method. Adsorption of 238U(VI) on AO/CNFs from aqueous solutions was significantly higher than that of 238U(VI) from seawater and groundwater; moreover, AO/CNFs displayed the highest effective selectivity for 238U(VI) compared to the other radionuclides. Adsorption of 238U(VI) onto AO/CNFs created inner-sphere complexes (e.g., U-C shells) as shown by X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, which was supported by surface complexation modeling. Three inner-sphere complexes gave excellent fits to pH-edge and isothermal adsorption of 238U(VI) on the AO/CNFs. These observations are crucial for the utilization of plasma-grafted, AO-based composites in the preconcentration and immobilization of lanthanides and actinides in environmental remediation.
Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance.
Abstract Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of height and body mass index (BMI) in ∼250000 European participants have led to the discovery of ∼700 and ∼100 nearly independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with these traits, respectively. Here we combine summary statistics from those two studies with GWAS of height and BMI performed in ∼450000 UK Biobank participants of European ancestry. Overall, our combined GWAS meta-analysis reaches N ∼700000 individuals and substantially increases the number of GWAS signals associated with these traits. We identified 3290 and 941 near-independent SNPs associated with height and BMI, respectively (at a revised genome-wide significance threshold of P < 1 × 10−8), including 1185 height-associated SNPs and 751 BMI-associated SNPs located within loci not previously identified by these two GWAS. The near-independent genome-wide significant SNPs explain ∼24.6% of the variance of height and ∼6.0% of the variance of BMI in an independent sample from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Correlations between polygenic scores based upon these SNPs with actual height and BMI in HRS participants were ∼0.44 and ∼0.22, respectively. From analyses of integrating GWAS and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data by summary-data-based Mendelian randomization, we identified an enrichment of eQTLs among lead height and BMI signals, prioritizing 610 and 138 genes, respectively. Our study demonstrates that, as previously predicted, increasing GWAS sample sizes continues to deliver, by the discovery of new loci, increasing prediction accuracy and providing additional data to achieve deeper insight into complex trait biology. All summary statistics are made available for follow-up studies.
Revealing the size-dependent periodicities (including formula, growth pattern, and property evolution) is an important task in metal nanocluster research. However, investigation on this major issue has been complicated, as the size change is often accompanied by a structural change. Herein, with the successful determination of the Au44(TBBT)28 structure, where TBBT = 4-tert-butylbenzenethiolate, the missing size in the family of Au28(TBBT)20, Au36(TBBT)24, and Au52(TBBT)32 nanoclusters is filled, and a neat "magic series" with a unified formula of Au8n+4(TBBT)4n+8 (n = 3-6) is identified. Such a periodicity in magic numbers is a reflection of the uniform anisotropic growth patterns in this magic series, and the n value is correlated with the number of (001) layers in the face-centered cubic lattice. The size-dependent quantum confinement nature of this magic series is further understood by empirical scaling law, classical "particle in a box" model, and the density functional theory calculations.
BACKGROUNDThe most common mental disorders in both outpatient settings and the general population are depression and anxiety, which frequently coexist. Both of these disorders are associated with considerable disability.OBJECTIVEWhen the disorders co-occur, the disability is even greater. Authors sought to test an ultra-brief screening tool for both.METHODValidated two-item ultra-brief screeners for depression and anxiety were combined to constitute the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (the PHQ-4). Data were analyzed from 2,149 patients drawn from 15 primary-care clinics in the United States.RESULTSFactor analysis confirmed two discrete factors (Depression and Anxiety) that explained 84% of the total variance. Increasing PHQ-4 scores were strongly associated with functional impairment, disability days, and healthcare use. Anxiety had a substantial effect on functional status that was independent of depression.CONCLUSIONThe PHQ-4 is a valid ultra-brief tool for detecting both anxiety and depressive disorders.