Aim To assess the amount of apically extruded debris using Reciproc® instruments with different kinematics (150° counter clockwise [CCW]–30° clockwise [CW], 270° CCW–30° CW, 360° CCW–30° CW and continuous rotation). Methodology Forty‐eight maxillary central incisors were selected and assigned to four root canal shaping groups as follows (n = 12): 150° CCW–30° CW, 270° CCW–30° CW, 360° CCW–30° CW and continuous rotation. Reciproc R25 and R50® instruments were used in all groups. Apically extruded debris was collected and dried in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The weight of extruded debris was assessed with an electronic balance. The data were analysed with one way analysis of variance and LSD post hoc tests (P = 0.05). Results The 150° CCW–30° CW and 270° CCW–30° CW reciprocating motions extruded significantly less debris than continuous rotation (P 0.05). Conclusions All instrument movements were associated with apically extruded debris. However, the 150° CCW–30° CW and 270° CCW–30° CW reciprocating motions were associated with less extrusion than continuous rotation.
Incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion is a sensor-based control approach that promises to provide high-performance nonlinear control without requiring a detailed model of the controlled vehicle. In the context of attitude control of micro air vehicles, incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion only uses a control effectiveness model and uses estimates of the angular accelerations to replace the rest of the model. This paper provides solutions for two major challenges of incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion control: how to deal with measurement and actuator delays, and how to deal with a changing control effectiveness. The main contributions of this article are 1) a proposed method to correctly take into account the delays occurring when deriving angular accelerations from angular rate measurements; 2) the introduction of adaptive incremental nonlinear dynamic inversion, which can estimate the control effectiveness online, eliminating the need for manual parameter estimation or tuning; and 3) the incorporation of the momentum of the propellers in the controller. This controller is suitable for vehicles that experience a different control effectiveness across their flight envelope. Furthermore, this approach requires only very coarse knowledge of model parameters in advance. Real-world experiments show the high performance, disturbance rejection, and adaptiveness properties.
Performance and stability are demonstrated for a nonlinear path-following guidance method for unmanned air vehicles. The method was adapted from a pure pursuit-based path following, which has been widely used in ground based robot applications. The method is known to approximate a proportional -derivative controller when following a straight line path, but it is shown that there is also an element of anticipatory control that enables tight tracking when following curved paths. Ground speed is incorporated into the computation of commanded lateral acceleration, which adds an adaptive capability to accommodate vehicle speed changes due to external disturbances such as wind. Asymptotic Lyapunov stability of the nonlinear guidance method is demonstrated when the unmanned air vehicle is following circular paths. The adaptive nature of the guidance method makes its stability independent of vehicle velocity. The stability analysis is also extended to show robust stability of the guidance law in the presence of saturated lateral acceleration, which is an inherent limitation of flight vehicles. Flight tests of the algorithm, using two small unmanned air vehicles, showed that each aircraft was controlled to within 1.6 m root mean square when following circular paths. The method was used to perform a rendezvous of the two aircraft, bringing them into very close proximity, within 12 m of along track separation and 1.4 in root mean square relative position errors.
A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus with various features to minimize typical sources of error is designed and built. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement error are described and principles to overcome these are proposed. With these guiding principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus with a uniaxial 4-point contact geometry is designed to operate from room temperature to over 1200 K. This instrument design is simple to operate, and suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.