The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/) is an international public repository for high-throughput microarray and next-generation sequence functional genomic data sets submitted by the research community. The resource supports archiving of raw data, processed data and metadata which are indexed, cross-linked and searchable. All data are freely available for download in a variety of formats. GEO also provides several web-based tools and strategies to assist users to query, analyse and visualize data. This article reports current status and recent database developments, including the release of GEO2R, an R-based web application that helps users analyse GEO data.
Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.): the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB) (FTT0961), which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS) and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS). One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c), is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of the Francisella Pathogenicity Island, and acquisition of individual loci, adaptation by gene loss in the more recently emerged tularensis, holarctica, and mediasiatica subspecies occurred and was distinct from evolutionary events that differentiated these subspecies, and the novicida subspecies, from a common ancestor. Our findings are applicable to future studies focused on variations in Francisella subspecies pathogenesis, and of broader interest to studies of genomic pathoadaptation in bacteria.
Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis ) is a keystone species of high‐elevation forest ecosystems of western North America, but some parts of the geographic range have high infection and mortality from the non‐native white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola . Genetic maps can provide essential knowledge for understanding genetic disease resistance as well as local adaptation to changing climates. Exome‐seq was performed to construct high‐density genetic maps in two seed families. Composite maps positioned 9612 unigenes across 12 linkage groups ( LG s). Syntenic analysis of genome structure revealed that the majority of orthologs were positional orthologous genes ( POG s) with localization on homologous LG s among conifer species. Gene ontology ( GO) enrichment analysis showed relatively fewer constraints for POG s with putative roles in adaptation to environments and relatively more conservation for POG s with roles in basic cell function and maintenance. The mapped genes included 639 nucleotide‐binding site leucine‐rich repeat genes ( NBS ‐ LRR s) , 290 receptor‐like protein kinase genes ( RLK s), and 1014 genes with potential roles in the defense response and induced systemic resistance to attack by pathogens. Orthologous loci for resistance to rust pathogens were identified and were co‐positioned with multiple members of the R gene family, revealing the evolutionary pressure acting upon them. This high‐density genetic map provides a genomic resource and practical tool for breeding and genetic conservation programs, with applications in genome‐wide association studies ( GWASs ), the characterization of functional genes underlying complex traits, and the sequencing and assembly of the full‐length genomes of limber pine and related Pinus species. Using exome‐seq, we constructed a high‐density genetic map for limber pine and revealed that evolutionary pressure acts upon orthologous loci for resistance to rust pathogens. The availability and application of this genetic map can enable GWAS studies and the fine dissection of genetic architecture of complex traits with adaptive significance in limber pine and related five‐needle pines.
genomic species (gen. sp.) 3 and gen. sp. 13TU are increasingly recognized as clinically important taxa within the - (ACB) complex. To define the taxonomic position of these genomic species, we investigated 80 strains representing the known diversity of the ACB complex. All strains were characterized by AFLP analysis, amplified rDNA restriction analysis and nutritional or physiological testing, while selected strains were studied by 16S rRNA and gene sequence analysis, multilocus sequence analysis and whole-genome comparison. Results supported the genomic distinctness and monophyly of the individual species of the ACB complex. Despite the high phenotypic similarity among these species, some degree of differentiation between them could be made on the basis of growth at different temperatures and of assimilation of malonate, -tartrate levulinate or citraconate. Considering the medical relevance of gen. sp. 3 and gen. sp. 13TU, we propose the formal names sp. nov. and sp. nov. for these taxa, respectively. The type strain of sp. nov. is LMG 1035 (=CIP 70.29 ) and that of sp. nov. is LMG 10619 (=CCM 7791 ).