The quality of life during the first 4 months after fracture was estimated in 2,808 fractured patients from 11 countries. Analysis showed that there were significant differences in the quality of life (QoL) loss between countries. Other factors such as QoL prior fracture and hospitalisation also had a significant impact on the QoL loss.The International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic Fractures Study (ICUROS) was initiated in 2007 with the objective of estimating costs and quality of life related to fractures in several countries worldwide. The ICUROS is ongoing and enrols patients in 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Estonia, France, Italy, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Spain, UK and the USA). The objective of this paper is to outline the study design of ICUROS and present results regarding the QoL (measured using the EQ-5D) during the first 4 months after fracture based on the patients that have been thus far enrolled ICUROS.ICUROS uses a prospective study design where data (costs and quality of life) are collected in four phases over 18 months after fracture. All countries use the same core case report forms. Quality of life was collected using the EQ-5D instrument and a time trade-off questionnaire.The total sample for the analysis was 2,808 patients (1,273 hip, 987 distal forearm and 548 vertebral fracture). For all fracture types and countries, the QoL was reduced significantly after fracture compared to pre-fracture QoL. A regression analysis showed that there were significant differences in the QoL loss between countries. Also, a higher level of QoL prior to the fracture significantly increased the QoL loss and patients who were hospitalised for their fracture also had a significantly higher loss compared to those who were not.The findings in this study indicate that there appear to be important variations in the QoL decrements related to fracture between countries.
Fracture liaison services prevent hip fractures by identifying other osteoporotic fractures that generally debut at a younger age. However, this study showed that a minority of hip fracture patients are already known to the health services through having had prior osteoporotic fractures. Identification of vertebral fractures in particular is lacking.The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of prior major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) in the prior 10 years preceding hip fracture in order to provide information about the potential for prevention of hip fractures by fracture liaison services (FLS).We included all patients aged 50+ with surgically treated hip fracture in one calendar year (N = 8158) in the Danish Hospital Discharge Register. Prior fractures were identified using the same data source. A prior hip fracture was only included as a prior fracture if occurring more than 6 months before the present fracture.A total of 28% of hip fracture patients (32% of women and 19% of men) had at least one recognized MOF in the preceding 10 years. Forearm and humerus fractures constituted > 70% of prior MOF. In both genders, vertebral fractures only represented a small percentage (2.6%) of previously recognized MOF. Men were less likely than women to have experienced a prior MOF, chiefly due to fewer forearm and humerus fractures.The majority of hip fractures—and in particular hip fractures in men—occur without a previously treated MOF that could have resulted in early detection and treatment of osteoporosis. With current treatment modalities, a maximum of one in six hip fractures in Denmark can be prevented through FLS initiatives. Identification of patients with vertebral fractures for assessment and treatment is therefore critical for successful prevention of hip fractures using this strategy.
BackgroundIn postmenopausal women, a history of any fracture is an important risk factor for a future hip fracture. Whether similar findings apply to aging men remains to be established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to compare men and women with respect to the relative risk of hip fracture after a wrist or spine fracture.MethodsStudies published in full from January 1982 through September 2002 in English, French, or German were identified from the PubMed database and from reference lists of retrieved articles. We included cohort studies that reported fractures associated with minimal trauma of the wrist or spine as a risk factor for a subsequent hip fracture among (white) women and men who were fifty years old or older. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and were checked for accuracy in a second review. Differences in assessments were resolved by consensus of the two reviewers.ResultsNine cohort studies were included in this meta-analysisfive studies were conducted in the United States and four, in Europe. After homogeneity of association was demonstrated across all studies, a fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Among postmenopausal women, the relative risks for a future fracture of the hip after a fracture of the wrist or spine were 1.53 (95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 1.74; p < 0.001) and 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.92 to 2.51; p < 0.001), respectively. In older men, these relative risks were 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 2.08 to 5.11; p < 0.001) and 3.54 (95% confidence interval, 2.01 to 6.23; p < 0.001), respectively. Fractures of the distal part of the radius increased the relative risk of hip fracture significantly more in men than in women (p = 0.002). The impact of a spine fracture, conversely, did not differ between genders (p = 0.11). Sensitivity analyses with use of random-effects methodology confirmed these findings to be robust.ConclusionsThis meta-analysis suggests that a previous spine fracture has an equally important impact on the risk of a subsequent hip fracture in both genders. The prospective association between a Colles fracture and a subsequent hip fracture, however, is significantly stronger among men than among postmenopausal women. Men with a Colles fracture are at high risk for a future hip fracture and should be evaluated as candidates for preventive measures.Level of EvidencePrognostic study, Level I-2 (systematic review of Level-I studies). See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Rationale: Tibial tuberosity fractures most often occur in the adolescents. Fracture of tibial tuberosity in adults is extremely rare with only 5 reported cases till date. Tibial plateau fractures combined with tibial tubercle fractures are not common. Patient concerns: We report here a type B3 tibial plateau fracture (AO classification) with a concomitant fracture of tibial tuberosity. Diagnoses: Anteroposterior and lateral knee view radiographs revealed a complex comminuted fracture of the right tibial plateau (AO Type B3; Schatzker Type IV) with tibial tubercle fracture. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) showed that the tibial media plateau was split into 2 pieces in the sagittal plane, along with the isolated tibial tubercle. Interventions: The open procedure was performed first and a standard posteromedial approach for medial and posteromedial tibial plateau fracture was used with double locking plate fixation. The tibial tuberosity was fixed with a cortical screw. Outcomes: The patient showed full range of motion in right knee after 8 weeks. The patient was allowed full weight bearing at 4 months. Eight months after operation, he was asymptomatic, showed a full range of motion and good strength. He had returned to work with no limitations. Lessons: Fractures of the partial tibial plateau combined with tibial tubercle are present and should not be ignored. Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment will help achieve favorable outcomes in these patients.
aSummaryThe incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) was 2.95% among 6644 hip and femoral fractures. Independent risk factors included the use of bisphosphonates (BPs), osteopenia or osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, increased femoral curvatures, and thicker femoral cortices. Patients with AFFs and BP treatment were more likely to have problematic healing than those with typical femoral fractures (TFFs) and no BP treatment.IntroductionTo determine the incidence and risk factors of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs), we performed a multicenter case-control study. We also investigated the effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) on AFF healing.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographs of 6644 hip and femoral fractures of patients from eight tertiary referral hospitals. All the radiographs were reviewed to distinguish AFFs from TFFs. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors, and interaction analyses were used to investigate the effects of BPs on fracture healing.ResultsThe incidence of AFFs among 6644 hip and femoral fractures was 2.95% (90 subtrochanter and 106 femoral shaft fractures). All patients were females with a mean age of 72years, and 75.5% were exposed to BPs for an average duration of 5.2years (range, 1-17years). The use of BPs was significantly associated with AFFs (p<0.001, odds ratio=25.65; 95% confidence interval=10.74-61.28). Other independent risk factors for AFFs included osteopenia or osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, increased anterior and lateral femoral curvatures, and thicker lateral femoral cortex at the shaft level. Interaction analyses showed that patients with AFFs using BPs had a significantly higher risk of problematic fracture healing than those with TFFs and no BP treatment.ConclusionsThe incidence of AFFs among 6644 hip and femoral fractures was 2.95%. Osteopenia or osteoporosis, use of BPs, rheumatoid arthritis, increased anterior and lateral femoral curvatures, and thicker lateral femoral cortex were independent risk factors for the development of AFFs. Patients with AFFs and BP treatment were more likely to have problematic fracture healing than those with TFFs and no BP treatment.
One third of 218 men and half of 1,576 women with low-energy distal radius fractures met the bone mineral density (BMD) criteria for osteoporosis treatment. A large proportion of patients with increased fracture risk did not have osteoporosis. Thus, all distal radius fracture patients ≥50 years should be referred to bone densitometry.Main objectives were to determine the prevalence of patients with a low-energy distal radius fracture in need of osteoporosis treatment according to existing guidelines using T-score ≤ −2.0 or ≤−2.5 standard deviation (SD) and calculate their fracture risk.A total of 218 men and 1,576 women ≥50 years were included. BMD was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L2–L4). The WHO fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX®) was applied to calculate the 10-year fracture risk.T-scores ≤−2.0 and ≤−2.5 SD at femoral neck was found in 37.7% and 19.6% of men and 51.1% and 31.2% of women, respectively. The risk of hip fracture was 6.2% for men and 9.0% for women. The corresponding figures for patients with T-score ≤−2.0 SD were 11.6% and 14.5% and for T-score ≤−2.5 SD 16.3% and 18.2%, respectively. A large proportion of distal radius fracture patients with a high 10-year FRAX® risk did not have osteoporosis.Every second to every third fracture patient met the present BMD criteria for osteoporosis treatment. Because a large proportion of distal radius fracture patients did not have osteoporosis, treatment decisions should not be based on fracture risk assessment without bone densitometry. Thus, all distal radius fracture patients ≥50 years should be referred to bone densitometry, and if indicated, offered medical treatment.
States, resulting in considerable patient mortality and morbidity. The various types of adult proximal femoral fractures require different treatment strategies that depend on a variety of considerations, including the location, morphologic features, injury mechanism, and stability of the fracture, as well as the patient's age and baseline functional status. The authors discuss femoral head, femoral neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric fractures in terms of injury mechanisms, specific anatomic and biomechanical features, and important diagnostic and management considerations, including the diagnostic utility of imaging modalities. The authors review clinically important classification systems, such as the Pipkin, Garden, Pauwels, and Evans-Jensen classification systems, with emphasis on differentiating subchondral insufficiency fractures from avascular necrosis of the femoral head and typical subtrochanteric fractures from atypical (often bisphosphonate-related) subtrochanteric fractures. In addition, the authors describe the potential complications and management strategies for each fracture type on the basis of the patient's age and physical condition. A clear understanding of these considerations allows the radiologist to better provide appropriate and relevant diagnostic information and management guidance to the orthopedic surgeon. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (C) RSNA, 2015
Postmenopausal Caucasian women aged less than 80 years (n= 99) with one or more atraumatic vertebral fracture and no hip fractures, were treated by cyclical administration of enteric coated sodium fluoride (NaF) or no NaF for 27 months, with precautions to prevent excessive stimulation of bone turnover. In the first study 65 women, unexposed to estrogen (–E study), age 70.8 ± 0.8 years (mean ± SEM) were all treated with calcium (Ca) 1.0–1.2 g daily and ergocalciferol (D) 0.25 mg per 25 kg once weekly and were randomly assigned to cyclical NaF (6 months on, 3 months off, initial dose 60 mg/day; group F CaD, n= 34) or no NaF (group CaD, n= 31). In the second study 34 patients, age 65.5 ± 1.2 years, on hormone replacement therapy (E) at baseline, had this standardized, and were all treated with Ca and D and similarly randomized (FE CaD, n= 17; E CaD, n= 17) (+E study). The patients were stratified according to E status and subsequently assigned randomly to ± NaF. Seventy-five patients completed the trial. Both groups treated with NaF showed an increase in lumbar spinal density (by DXA) above baseline by 27 months: FE CaD + 16.2% and F CaD +9.3% (both p= 0.0001). In neither group CaD nor E CaD did lumbar spinal density increase. Peripheral bone loss occurred at most sites in the F CaD group at 27 months: tibia/fibula shaft –7.3% (p= 0.005); femoral shaft –7.1% (p= 0.004); distal forearm –4.0% (p = 0.004); total hip –4.1% (p = 0.003); and femoral neck –3.5% (p= 0.006). No significant loss occurred in group FE CaD. Differences between the two NaF groups were greatest at the total hip at 27 months but were not significant [p<0.05; in view of the multiple bone mineral density (BMD) sites, an alpha of 0.01 was employed to denote significance in BMD changes throughout this paper]. Using Cox’s proportional hazards model, in the –E study there were significantly more patients with first fresh vertebral fractures in those treated with NaF than in those not so treated (RR = 24.2, p= 0.008, 95% CI 2.3–255). Patients developing first fresh fractures in the first 9 months were markedly different between groups: –23% of F CaD, 0 of CaD, 29% of FE CaD and 0 of E CaD. The incidence of incomplete (stress) fractures was similar in the two NaF-treated groups. Complete nonvertebral fractures did not occur in the two +E groups; there were no differences between groups F CaD and CaD. Baseline BMD (spine and femoral neck) was related to incident vertebral fractures in the control groups (no NaF), but not in the two NaF groups. Our results and a literature review indicate that fluoride salts, if used, should be at low dosage, with pretreatment and co-treatment with a bone resorption inhibitor.
Distal femoral fractures have many of the same challenges as hip fractures, but there has been limited research into outcomes following these. The aim of this study was to assess 30 day mortality following distal femoral fractures in comparison to hip fractures presenting to a single institution Secondary outcomes included risk factors for mortality, post-operative complications and union. A retrospective case series of all distal femoral fragility fractures in patients over 65, and hip fractures over a 5 year period at a single institution. 88 distal femoral fractures and 2837 hip fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the distal femoral fractures there were 80 females and 8 males with a mean age of 82.4 (range 65–103). The mean age of the hip fractures was 83.7 (range 65–106) and there were 2066 females and 771 males. The overall 30 day mortality for hip fractures was 7.7% and was 9.1% for distal femoral fractures. The risk ratio was 1.1777(95% CI 0.6009–2.3080) (p = 0.6338). There was no significant difference in 30 day mortality between the two fracture types. Of the 88 distal femoral fractures 75 (85.2%) underwent open reduction internal fixation, 5 (5.7%) intramedullary nail and 8 (9.1%) conservative treatment. 11.4% suffered a medical complication. 9.1% patients required at least 1 further surgical procedure. The union rate was 94.3%. The 1 year mortality was 34.1%. There is no significant difference in 30 day mortality between distal femoral and hip fractures. Distal femoral fractures occur in a complex group of patients that is similar to hip fractures. They have high mortality and complication rates.
Only few case series of capitellar and trochlear fractures have been reported. Some of them assume that the presence of a posterior comminution (type B according to Dubberley classification) can represent a negative risk factor for treatment and prognosis respect to the type A cases (without posterior comminution). Nevertheless, how this parameter impacts the treatment and the prognosis has never been quantified before. All the capitellar and trochlear fractures treated from 2007 to 2015 have been retrospectively reviewed. The presence of posterior comminution on a pre-operative CT-scan was correlated to the surgical technique, to the timing of initiation of rehabilitation and to clinical outcomes. 45 Consecutive patients have been selected, 17 not presenting a posterior comminution (type A), and 28 with posterior comminution (type B). In all the type A fractures a lateral approach (Kocher o Kocher extensile) was used and the fragment fixation was always performed using only screws. Elbow replacement or olecranon osteotomy were performed only to treat type B fractures. Augmented fixations, using plates and k-wires, or prosthetic replacement have been used only in type B fractures. The post-operative immobilization was significantly inferior for type A fracture. Better results have been obtained in type A fractures: mean MEPI score was 86 in type A and 73 in type B, the range of motion was significatively higher in type A both in flexion-extension and in pronation-supination. In type B fractures a significant higher number of complications have been observed (64% vs 29%) along with more reoperations. The study has confirmed that, even without considering the extension of the fracture on the coronal plane, the presence of posterior comminution represents an evident negative risk factor, influencing the surgical approach and treatment, the fixation technique, the post-operative rehabilitation, the clinical outcomes, the complications and re-operation rates. The analysis of the present case series shows how the treatment and the outcomes can be significantly anticipated based on the presence or absence of posterior comminution. Patients with type A fracture are more likely treated with a Kocher approach, screw fixation, an early rehabilitation is performed. In type A fractures better outcomes and low complications rate are expected.