Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed additive, occurs as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Rice is prone to accumulate As than other staple food. Four diets with 0, 40, 80 and 120 mg ROX kg were fed in chickens, and four chicken manures (CMs) were collected to fertilize rice plants in a soil culture experiment. Linear regression analysis shows that the slopes of As species including 4-hydroxy-phenylarsonic acid, As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in CM versus dietary ROX were 0.033, 0.314, 0.033, 0.054 and 0.138, respectively. Both As(III) and DMA were determined in all rice grains, and As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA in rice hull, but detectable As forms in rice straws and soils increased with increasing ROX dose. Grain As(III) was unrelated to ROX dose but exceeded the Chinese rice As limit (0.15 mg As(III) kg ). Dietary ROX enhanced straw As(III) mostly, with the slope of 0.020, followed by hull DMA (0.006) and grain DMA (0.002). The slopes of soil As(V) and As(III) were 0.003 and 0.001. This is the first report illustrating the quantitative delivery of ROX via food chain, which helps to evaluate health and environmental risks caused by ROX use in animal production.
The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of meat and the histological structure of muscles of Ayam Cemani chickens, Ayam Cemani × Sussex hybrids and slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens and to examine whether crossing generally available Sussex chickens with little available Ayam Cemani gives a good quality product of interest to the poultry industry and in food technology. The size of breast and leg muscle fibers varied among genotypes. The breast and leg muscles of slow-growing Hubbard JA 957 chickens had the largest fiber diameter. The histological and biochemical properties of muscles, including the type, number, proportions, diameter and metabolic profile of fibers, had a significant effect on the pH and water-binding capacity of meat, thus affecting its quality. The muscle fibers of Ayam Cemani chickens were approximately half the size of the muscle fibers of Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Ayam Cemani and Ayam Cemani × Sussex gave a product of as good quality as Hubbard JA 957 chickens. Meat from Ayam Cemani chickens is a rich source of protein and could be highly valued by gourmet consumers, connoisseurs and dieticians for its rarity and originality. The results of this study show that genotype (Ayam Cemani, Ayam Cemani × Sussex, Hubbard JA 957) affected the quality and color of meat and the histological profile of chicken breast and leg muscles.
Background. The worldwide prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)—producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing rapidly both in hospitals and in the community. A connection between ESBL-producing bacteria in food animals, retail meat, and humans has been suggested. We previously reported on the genetic composition of a collection of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) from chicken meat and humans from a restricted geographic area. Now, we have extended the analysis with plasmid replicons, virulence factors, and highly discriminatory genomic profiling methods. Methods. One hundred forty-five ESBL-EC isolates from retail chicken meat, human rectal carriers, and blood cultures were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, phylotyping, ESBL genes, plasmid replicons, virulence genes, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results. Three source groups overlapped substantially when their genetic composition was compared. A combined analysis using all variables yielded the highest resolution (Wilks lambda [Λ]: 0.08). Still, a prediction model based on the combined data classified 40% of the human isolates as chicken meat isolates. AFLP and PFGE showed that the isolates from humans and chicken meat could not be segregated and identified 1 perfect match between humans and chicken meat. Conclusions. We found significant genetic similarities among ESBL-EC isolates from chicken meat and humans according to mobile resistance elements, virulence genes, and genomic backbone. Therefore, chicken meat is a likely contributor to the recent emergence of ESBL-EC in human infections in the study region. This raises serious food safety questions regarding the abundant presence of ESBL-EC in chicken meat.
The development of transgenic chicken technology has lagged far behind that of mammalian species. Two reasons for this are that only a one‐cell‐stage oocyte can be obtained from a sacrificed hen and that the yolk prevents high‐magnification microscopic observation of oocytes. Recently, several new methods have been developed that will enable the successful establishment of transgenic chickens. Retroviral vectors are used in many cases because of their ability to incorporate transgenes into host cell chromosomes in a highly efficient manner. These viral vectors are injected directly into the embryos, usually at the blastodermal stage. In some cases, primordial germ cells ( PGC s) are infected in vitro and then implanted into recipient embryos. Methods that do not rely on retroviral vectors are also available for creating transgenic chickens. Long‐term culture of PGC s permits the selection of stably transfected cells and implantation of the manipulated PGC s. In addition, embryonic stem ( ES ) cell systems are available; however, the induction of functional gametes from ES cells has not, to our knowledge, been successful. It is clear that recent developments suggest that chickens may be used as a valuable experimental genetic system.
Although isomer-specific bioaccumulation of dechlorane plus (DP) has been addressed in many studies, it remains unclear which factors determine this process and whether biotransformation of DP occurs in organisms. Comparative experiments were conducted in both in vivo and in ovo incubation using hens and eggs to identify the dominant factors determining the bioaccumulation of DP. Hens and fertilized eggs were exposed to DP isomers ( - and -DP) by feeding and spiking, respectively, to investigate absorption, elimination, and metabolism. No significant differences were found between absorption efficiencies of DP isomers in the adult hens. Following first-order kinetics, -DP exhibited a slightly longer half-life than -DP as well as an elevated -DP fraction in laid eggs, thereby suggesting selective enrichment of -DP in adult hens. However, chicken embryos metabolized approximately 12% and 28% of the absorbed - and -DP, respectively, thereby verifying that -DP was preferably metabolized. This result indicated that stereo-selective excretion of -DP, rather than preferred metabolism of -DP, played a more prominent role in isomer-specific bioaccumulation of DP in chickens. Further studies on metabolites of DP are crucial to understanding the fate of DP in organisms. Stereo-selective excretion of -DP, rather than metabolism, is the dominant factor determining bioaccumulation of DP in chicken.
This study aimed to reformulate chicken nuggets, through the replacement of 0–20% chicken skin by chia flour, to produce a fibre-enriched product with a healthier fatty acid profile. The replacement of chicken skin by chia flour increased polyunsaturated fatty acids (including the omega-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid) and dietary fibre contents while decreased the contents of moisture, saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids, and lowered the water activity. The protein, lipid and ash contents, oil absorption, weight gain of the coating and cooking yield were not affected by the incorporation of chia flour, whereas the objective colour and texture parameters were affected. The chicken nuggets containing 10% chia flour were considered acceptable by the panellists. Moreover, the addition of up to 10% chia flour in chicken nuggets did not compromise the technological characteristics and acceptability of the meat product.
Hemicell ® HT/HT‐L is an additive that presents endo‐1,4‐β‐mannanase produced by a genetically modified strain of Paenibacillus lentus . This additive is aimed to be used as a feed additive for chickens for fattening/reared for laying, turkeys for fattening/reared for breeding, weaned piglets, pigs for fattening and minor poultry and porcine species. In a previous assessment, the EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP) established the safety of the additive regarding the production strain, target species, consumer and user. However, limitations on the data regarding the absence of the production strain and its DNA did not permit to conclude on the safety of the additive for the environment. In that assessment, the Panel considered that the additive has a potential to be efficacious in the target species with the exception of pigs for fattening and in minor porcine species. The applicant provided new data to address the limitations identified. New data provided allowed the FEEDAP Panel to conclude that production strain and its recombinant DNA are not detected in the intermediate product used to formulate the additive. Therefore, the Panel concluded that the additive does not pose any environmental safety concern. Regarding the efficacy in pigs for fattening, the applicant provided a new analysis of the trials previously assessed which allowed the Panel to conclude that the additive has a potential to improve the feed to gain ratio at 32,000 U/kg feed. No data was provided regarding the efficacy in minor porcine species. However, considering the data available in major porcine species and that the mode of action of enzymes is well‐known and can be reasonably be considered to be similar among porcine species the Panel extrapolated the conclusion drawn in pigs for fattening to minor porcine species for fattening.
Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.
Viruses that infect birds pose major threats-to the global supply of chicken, the major, universally-acceptable meat, and as zoonotic agents (e.g. avian influenza viruses H5N1 and H7N9). Controlling these viruses in birds as well as understanding their emergence into, and transmission amongst, humans will require considerable ingenuity and understanding of how different species defend themselves. The type I interferon-coordinated response constitutes the major antiviral innate defence. Although interferon was discovered in chicken cells, details of the response, particularly the identity of hundreds of stimulated genes, are far better described in mammals. Viruses induce interferon-stimulated genes but they also regulate the expression of many hundreds of cellular metabolic and structural genes to facilitate their replication. This study focusses on the potentially anti-viral genes by identifying those induced just by interferon in primary chick embryo fibroblasts. Three transcriptomic technologies were exploited: RNA-seq, a classical 3'-biased chicken microarray and a high density, "sense target", whole transcriptome chicken microarray, with each recognising 120-150 regulated genes (curated for duplication and incorrect assignment of some microarray probesets). Overall, the results are considered robust because 128 of the compiled, curated list of 193 regulated genes were detected by two, or more, of the technologies.