We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.
•A rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed in the study.•Effects of cell phone use and driver gender on collision avoidance were evaluated.•Cell phone use drivers took compensatory behaviors but still encountered high risk.•Hands-free cell phone use also impaired the collision avoidance performance.•Females tended to keep larger safety margin with the leading vehicle than males. Driver’s collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver’s performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver’s gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle’s sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver’s gender. The cell phone use and driver’s gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in critical situation, they were more quickly in braking with larger maximum deceleration rate, and they tended to keep a larger safety margin with the leading vehicle compared to male drivers. The findings shed some light on the further development of advanced collision avoidance technologies and the targeted intervention strategies about cell phone use while driving.
Noncoverage rates in U.S. landline-based telephone samples due to cell phone only households (i.e., households with no landline but accessible by cell phone) and the corresponding potential for bias in estimates from surveys that sample only from landline frames are growing issues. Building on some of the few published studies that focus on this problem, a study was conducted in three states (Georgia, New Mexico, and Pennsylvania) as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest ongoing public health telephone survey, to evaluate the effectiveness of conducting the BRFSS interview with a sample drawn from dedicated cell phone telephone exchanges and mixed-use (landline and cell phone) exchanges. Approximately 600 interviews were conducted in each of two groups: cell phone only adults (n = 572) and adults with both a landline and a cell phone (n = 592). Making comparisons with data from the ongoing, landline-based BRFSS survey, we report on response rates, demographic characteristics of respondents, key survey estimates of health conditions and risk behaviors, and survey costs. The methods used in this study have wide application for other U.S. telephone surveys.
Regular care and informational support are helpful in improving disease-related health outcomes. Communication technologies can help in providing such care and support. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the empirical evidence related to the role of cell phones and text messaging interventions in improving health outcomes and processes of care. Scientific literature was searched to identify controlled studies evaluating cell phone voice and text message interventions to provide care and disease management support. Searches identified 25 studies that evaluated cell phone voice and text messaging interventions, with 20 randomized controlled trials and 5 controlled studies. Nineteen studies assessed outcomes of care and six assessed processes of care. Selected studies included 38,060 participants with 10,374 adults and 27,686 children. They covered 12 clinical areas and took place in 13 countries. Frequency of message delivery ranged from 5 times per day for diabetes and smoking cessation support to once a week for advice on how to overcome barriers and maintain regular physical activity. Significant improvements were noted in compliance with medicine taking, asthma symptoms, HbA1C, stress levels, smoking quit rates, and self-efficacy. Process improvements were reported in lower failed appointments, quicker diagnosis and treatment, and improved teaching and training. Cost per text message was provided by two studies. The findings that enhancing standard care with reminders, disease monitoring and management, and education through cell phone voice and short message service can help improve health outcomes and care processes have implications for both patients and providers.
High optical resolution in microscopy usually goes along with costly hardware components, such as lenses, mechanical setups and cameras. Several studies proved that Single Molecular Localization Microscopy can be made affordable, relying on off-the-shelf optical components and industry grade CMOS cameras. Recent technological advantages have yielded consumer-grade camera devices with surprisingly good performance. The camera sensors of smartphones have benefited of this development. Combined with computing power smartphones provide a fantastic opportunity for "imaging on a budget". Here we show that a consumer cellphone is capable of optical super-resolution imaging by (direct) Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (dSTORM), achieving optical resolution better than 80 nm. In addition to the use of standard reconstruction algorithms, we used a trained image-to-image generative adversarial network (GAN) to reconstruct video sequences under conditions where traditional algorithms provide sub-optimal localization performance directly on the smartphone. We believe that "cellSTORM" paves the way to make super-resolution microscopy not only affordable but available due to the ubiquity of cellphone cameras.
Location prediction based on cellular network traces has recently spurred lots of attention. However, predicting user mobility remains a very challenging task due to the fuzziness of human mobility patterns. Our preliminary study included in this paper shows that there is a strong correlation between the calling patterns and co-cell patterns of users (i.e., co-occurrence in the same cell tower at the same time). Based on this finding, we propose NextCell-a novel algorithm that aims to enhance the location prediction by harnessing the social interplay revealed in cellular call records. Moreover, our proposal removes the assumption held in previous schemes that binds locations of cell towers to concrete physical coordinates, e.g., GPS coordinates. We validate our approach with the MIT Reality Mining dataset that involves 32,579 symbolic cell tower locations and 350,000 hours of continuous activity information. Experimental results show that NextCell achieves higher precision and recall than the state-of-the-art schemes at cell tower level in the forthcoming one to six hours.
•Cluster analysis identified three distinct and valid groups of cell phone users.•Groups identified: High User (HU), Low Use Extrovert (LUE), Low Use Introvert (LUI).•Leisure experience (boredom, challenge, awareness, distress) compared across groups.•LUE: highest preference for challenge, most aware, least susceptible to boredom.•HU: more susceptible to boredom, experienced the most distress. College students are more likely to use their cell phones for leisure than for school or work. Because leisure is important for health and well-being, and cell phone use has been associated with mental and physical health, the relationship between cell phone use and leisure should be better understood. This research classified college students into distinct groups based on their cell phone use and personality traits, and then compared each group’s leisure experiences. Methods: A random sample of students (N=454) completed validated surveys assessing personality (Big 5) and dimensions of the leisure experience (boredom, challenge, distress, awareness). Cell phone use and demographics were also assessed. Results: A cluster analysis produced a valid, three-group solution: a “High Use” group characterized primarily by cell phone use (over 10h/day), and two Low Use groups (3h/day) characterized by divergent personalities (extroverted and introverted). ANOVA compared each group’s leisure experiences and found the “Low Use Extrovert” had significantly less boredom, greater preference for challenge, and greater awareness of opportunities and benefits than the other groups (p<.01). The “High Use” group experienced significantly more leisure distress than the other groups (p<.05). Implications for health and well-being are discussed.
Cell phones are now widespread in many countries including Japan where we teach, and are particularly popular among university students. Although they can be a distraction in the classroom, functions such as Internet access and e-mail capability have transformed them into sophisticated communication tools. But are they also potentially useful in language learning? While task-based approaches (Nunan, 1989) adapted to desktop e-mail are now a growing area of research in CALL (Greenfield, 2003; Gonzalez-Lloret, 2003), cell phones have yet to receive much attention. This paper reports on a classroom research project aimed at evaluating the use of mobile phones as tools for classroom learning. Freshman university students in intact EFL classes (2 elementary classes, 2 lower intermediate) were first surveyed regarding their cell phone use and pre-tested to assess their knowledge of certain target learning structures. Following this they were subdivided into three groups: (a) using cell phone text messages, (b) using computer e-mail, and (c) speaking. The learners were paired, trained with warm-up tasks, and given two further sets of tasks to complete (one in class and the other at home). The target vocabulary appeared in the initial narrative task. All messages sent while doing the tasks were saved for analysis. The speaking task pairs were recorded and samples were transcribed for comparison. Finally learners took a post-test the following week to assess short-term learning gains. This project drew attention to a number of potential advantages of mobile phones as well as highlighting some limitations, but overall suggested that mobile phones represent a language learning resource worthy of further investigation.
Does improved communication provided by modern cellphone technology affect the rise or fall of violence during insurgencies? A priori predictions are ambiguous; introducing cellphones can enhance insurgent communications but can also make it easier for the population to share information with counterinsurgents and creates opportunities for signals intelligence collection. We provide the first systematic micro-level test of the effect of cellphone communication on conflict using data on Iraq's cellphone network (2004–2009) and event data on violence. We show that increased mobile communications reduced insurgent violence in Iraq, both at the district level and for specific local coverage areas. The results provide support for models of insurgency that focus on noncombatants providing information as the key constraint on violent groups and highlight the fact that small changes in the transaction costs of cooperating with the government can have large macro effects on conflict.