•Triple-bounded dichotomous choice design and Spike models are applied in this study.•The amount of money Taiwan automobile drivers are willing to pay for different moving violations is studied.•Results show that drivers who turn right on red will accept a lower willingness to pay of US$9.•Drunk drivers will accept a willingness to pay as high as US$597.•The difference in WTP for drunk driving between drivers and motorcyclists is significant. A triple-bounded dichotomous choice (TBDC) structure and Spike models are applied to investigate the amount of money Taiwan automobile drivers are willing to pay for five types of moving violations, including local street speeding, expressway and freeway speeding, red light running, right turn on red, and drink-driving. Face-to-face survey was conducted at freeway rest areas by targeting passenger car drivers. The Spike model, superior to other tradition models by capturing excessive zero responses, is applied and the estimated results show that speeders would accept willingness to pay (WTP) of US$37 and US$48,111US$=30NT$. respectively, for local roads and expressways and highways, while red-light runners would accept a WTP of US$44, drivers who turn right on red would accept a lower WTP of US$9, and drunk drivers will accept a WTP as high as US$597. Interestingly, the difference in WTP for drunk driving between drivers and motorcyclists is significant, while others are not.
AbstractA toll-lane selection process at a toll plaza can be looked at as an outcome of the choice processes of individual drivers. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a random utility-based discrete multinomial choice model for the behavior of automobile drivers while selecting toll lanes at a toll plaza. Specifically, a multinomial logit model is developed and calibrated using disaggregate level choice data from three toll plazas with different geometry and rates of arrival of vehicles. The calibrated logit models from the different sites when statistically compared show that a generic model, applicable to all the sites, is possible. Such a generic model is also developed. The use of the proposed model can improve the analysis of traffic flow at toll plazas and ultimately lead to more effective designs of these facilities.
Anger and frustration may contribute to unsafe driving and may trigger instances of aggressive driving or road rage. Research shows that stress, fatigue from the exercise of directed attention, or a combination of these factors can exacerbate anger and frustration. It also suggests that exposure to vegetation can facilitate recovery from stress and fatigue. Can highway vegetation mitigate automobile driver anger and frustration? We assigned 106 participants at random to view one of three video-tapes of highway drives, which varied in the amount of vegetation versus man-made material. The experiment obtained Speilberger State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) measures of anger before and after video exposure and obtained a measure of frustration tolerance after the video. No significant effect on anger emerged, but the results for frustration tolerance showed higher frustration tolerance (respondents spent more time on unsolvable anagrams) after exposure to videotapes with more vegetation. Parkway design and roadside vegetation appear to have restorative effects in reducing frustration.
Our research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. We found that driving performance of both younger and older adults was influenced by cell phone conversations. Compared with single-task (i.e., drivingonly) conditions, when drivers used cell phones their reactions were 18% slower, their following distance was 12% greater, and they took 17% longer to recover the speed that was lost following braking. There was also a twofold increase in the number of rear-end collisions when drivers were conversing on a cell phone. These cellphone-induced effects were equivalent for younger and older adults, suggesting that older adults do not suffer a significantly greater penalty for talking on a cell phone while driving than compared with their younger counterparts. Interestingly, the net effect of having younger drivers converse on a cell phone was to make their average reactions equivalent to those of older drivers who were not using a cell phone. Actual or potential applications of this research include providing guidance for recommendations and regulations concerning the use of mobile technology while driving.
Abstract Purpose of the Study In a number of states, physicians are mandated by state law to report at-risk drivers to licensing authorities. Often these patients are older adult drivers who may exhibit unsafe driving behaviors, have functional/cognitive impairments, or are diagnosed with conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and/or seizure disorders. The hypothesis that mandatory physician reporting laws reduce the rate of crash-related hospitalizations among older adult drivers was tested. Design and Methods Using retrospective data (2004–2009), this study identified 176,066 older driver crash-related hospitalizations, from the State Inpatient Databases. Three age-specific negative binomial generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the effect of physician reporting laws on state’s incidence rate of crash-related hospitalizations among older drivers. Results No evidence was found for an independent association between mandatory physician reporting laws and a lower crash hospitalization rate among any of the age groups examined. The main predictor of interest, mandatory physician reporting, failed to explain any significant variation in crash hospitalization rates, when adjusting for other state-specific laws and characteristics. Vision testing at in-person license renewal was a significant predictor of lower crash hospitalization rate, ranging from incidence rate ratio of 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.62–0.94) among 60- to 64-year olds to 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.67–0.97) among 80- to 84-year olds. Implications Physician reporting laws and age-based licensing requirements are often at odds with older driver’s need to maintain independence. This study examines this balance and finds no evidence of the benefits of mandatory physician reporting requirements on driver crash hospitalizations, suggesting that physician mandates do not yet yield significant older driver safety benefits, possibly to the detriment of older driver’s well-being and independence.
Highway traffic control signs are commonly used to regulate, warn, and guide road users. It is widely believed that traffic signs comprehension has a tremendous effect on traffic safety. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between drivers’ personal characteristics and their familiarity/comprehensibility with a thirty nine posted traffic signs. To this end, 400 surveys were distributed among Jordanian drivers. The results showed that the familiarity level of traffic signs is higher than comprehensibility level. On average 79%, 77%, and 83% of the drivers were familiar with regulatory, warning, and guidance traffic signs, respectively. On the other hand, only 61%, 66%, and 75% of the drivers comprehended regulatory, warning, and guidance traffic signs, respectively. “Narrow Bridge”, “Divided Roadway a Head”, “Dead End” and “Highway” received the lowest comprehensibility scores among drivers. Participants with commercial driving license had higher familiarity and comprehensibility levels than those with regular license. Drivers with a driving experience more than 11years show more familiarity and comprehensibility for traffic signs than those with less than 2 years driving experience. The number of traffic violations did not have a significant effect on traffic signs familiarity and comprehensibility.
In high-income countries of the Arabian Peninsula, including the Sultanate of Oman, motorization has been extremely rapid. As a result, road traffic crashes are by far the highest cause of premature mortality, and speeding is an acknowledged key risk factor. Theory-based interventions are needed to target prevention of this unsafe practice. This study sheds light on determinants of speeding among new generations of Omani drivers applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A questionnaire covering all five main constructs of the TPB was first contextualized and administered to two target groups: male drivers of all ages (n = 1107) approached in person when renewing their driving license and university students drivers (men and women) reached through internet contact (n = 655). Multiple, stepwise linear regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with speeding. Results indicate that driving fast and not respecting the posted speed limits was common in both groups of drivers, although rates were higher among students; 41.8% reported driving a bit faster than other drivers and 24.1% faster than the posted speed limit compared with 31.4% and 14.2% in male drivers of all ages. In both groups the TPB model predicted to a limited extent the determinants of speeding behaviour. However, the intention to speed was associated with a negative attitude towards the respect of rules for men of all ages (β = -0.30 (p<0.001)) and for students (β = -0.26 (p<0.001)); a positive view regarding subjective norms (β = 0.25 (p<0.001) and β = 0.28 (p<0.001) respectively), and behavioural control (β = 0.15 (p<0.001) and β = 0.20 (p<0.001) respectively). Intention was the only significant predictor of speeding behaviour (β = 0.48 (p<0.001); and β = 0.64 (p<0.001)). To conclude, speeding is widespread among Omani drivers of all ages and the intention to respect posted speed limits meets a range of barriers that need greater consideration in order to achieve a better safety culture in the country.
As part of the effort to ascertain why young drivers are more at risk for car crashes, attention has recently turned to the effects of family, including the intergenerational transmission of driving styles from parents to offspring. The current study sought to further understanding of the nature and aspects of the family influence with the help of Bowen's family systems theory. In Phase 1 of the prospective study, 130 young driving students completed questionnaires tapping personal and personality measures, and their parents completed driving-related instruments. In Phase 2, a year after the young drivers had obtained their driver's license, they were administered the same questionnaires their parents had previously completed. The results show significant correlations between the parents’ driving styles and those of their offspring a year after licensure. Furthermore, differentiation of self and self-efficacy in newly acquired driving skills were found to moderate or heighten the similarity between the driving styles of parents and their offspring. For young drivers reporting anxiety in Phase 1, this was associated with a reported anxious driving style a year later. Among young female drivers, anxiety was also associated with a reckless and careless style. Higher sensation seeking was related to higher reckless driving among young male drivers. The findings are discussed in the context of adolescence and the role of the study variables in the development and intergenerational transmission of driving styles. In addition to its theoretical contribution to the realms of intergenerational transmission in general, and young drivers in particular, the study may have practical implications for both family therapy and the design of driving interventions.
Although motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for adolescents, there is a scarcity of research addressing adolescents' lack of pre-licensure practical driving experience, which is theorized to increase their post-licensure crash risk. Utilizing police-reported crashes and survey data from a randomized and quasi-randomized trial (n = 458 adolescents, 16 or 17 years of age at enrollment), the impact of a parent-directed supervised practice driving intervention and a comprehensive on-road driving assessment (ODA) with feedback was evaluated on adolescent drivers' motor vehicle crashes involvement. Compared with the control condition, a nonsignificant 20% relative reduction in risk was observed for the parent-directed intervention: adjusted hazard ratio = .80 (95% confidence interval [CI] .44, 1.43); the unadjusted absolute risk reduction was 1.1% (95% CI −4.4, 7.1). Exposure to the ODA resulted in an 53% relative reduction of risk: adjusted hazard ratio = .47 (95% CI .24, .91); the unadjusted absolute risk reduction was 5.4% (95% CI −.3, 10.7). Comprehensive ODA might be protective for adolescents; however, additional research is needed.
► Investigated the effect of graduated driver licensing changes on young Learners. ► Young Learners on average are now practising more, and over a longer duration. ► Learners also report less unsupervised driving and difficulty obtaining practice. ► Learners report that parents, particularly mothers, most commonly provide practice. ► Most Learners report that logbook entries are accurate. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) has been introduced in numerous jurisdictions in Australia and internationally in an attempt to ameliorate the significantly greater risk of death and injury for young novice drivers arising from road crashes. The GDL program in Queensland, Australia, was extensively modified in July 2007. This paper reports the driving and licensing experiences of Learner drivers progressing through the current-GDL program, and compares them to the experiences of Learners who progressed through the former-GDL program. Young drivers ( n = 1032, 609 females, 423 males) aged 17–19 years ( M = 17.43, SD = 0.67) were recruited as they progressed from a Learner to a Provisional driver's licence. They completed a survey exploring their sociodemographic characteristics, driving and licensing experiences as a Learner. Key measures for a subsample ( n = 183) of the current-GDL drivers were compared with the former-GDL drivers ( n = 149) via t-tests and chi-square analyses. As expected, Learner drivers progressing through the current-GDL program gained significantly more driving practice than those in the former program, which was more likely to be provided by mothers than in the past. Female Learners in the current-GDL program reported less difficulty obtaining supervision than those in the former program. The number of attempts needed to pass the practical driving assessment did not change, nor did the amount of professional supervision. The current-GDL Learners held their licence for a significantly longer duration than those in the former program, with the majority reporting that their Logbook entries were accurate on the whole. Compared to those in the former program, a significantly smaller proportion of male current-GDL Learners reported being detected for a driving offence whilst the females reported significantly lower crash involvement. Most current-GDL drivers reported undertaking their supervised practice at the end of the Learner period. The enhancements to the GDL program in Queensland appear to have achieved many of their intended results. The current-GDL Learners participating in the study reported obtaining a significantly greater amount of supervised driving experience compared to former-GDL Learners. Encouragingly, the current-GDL Learners did not report any greater difficulty in obtaining supervised driving practice, and there was a decline in the proportion of current-GDL Learners engaging in unsupervised driving. In addition, the majority of Learners do not appear to be attempting to subvert logbook recording requirements, as evidenced by high rates of self-reported logbook accuracy. The results have implications for the development and the evaluation of GDL programs in Australia and around the world.