Presently, less than a handful of papers have analysed the attitude towards offshore wind farms in a population living in an area with offshore wind farms. This leaves the experience-based attitude and demographic relations analysis relatively unexplored. The present studies aims at covering some of that seemingly uncharted territory by analysing attitudes from a sample of more than 1000 respondents. Applying an Ordered Probit Model, the results show general positive attitudes towards offshore wind farms and that the attitude formation seems to be a function of the gender, income, level of education, visit frequency and type of visit to the beach and the view to on-land turbines from the residence. Interestingly and perhaps the most interesting results, the observed relations between demographics and attitude are found to be dependent on the type and frequency of usage of the beach among the respondents. Attitudes towards offshore wind farms and demographic associations are thus found to be more evident in the case that respondents do use not the beach for walking on a relatively frequent basis but much weaker if the respondent use the beach on a frequent basis. However, these results are sensitive to the type of beach usage. This suggests that attitude formation towards offshore wind farms appear to be dependent on a combination of the type and frequency of use of the beach. To the author's knowledge these findings are novel, as such relation has not yet been identified in the literature. As such, the results shed light on a new angle in both the literature focusing on the opposition formation towards wind power projects in general and offshore wind farms in particular.
Aims The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study aimed to assess psychosocial outcomes in people with diabetes across countries for benchmarking. Methods Surveys included new and adapted questions from validated questionnaires that assess health-related quality of life, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care. Questionnaires were conducted online, by telephone or in person. Results Participants were 8596 adults with diabetes across 17 countries. There were significant between-country differences for all benchmarking indicators; no one country's outcomes were consistently better or worse than others. The proportion with likely depression [WHO-5 Well-Being Index (WHO-5) score ≤ 28] was 13.8% (country range 6.5–24.1%). Diabetes-related distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale 5 (PAID-5) score ≥ 40] was reported by 44.6% of participants (17.2–67.6%). Overall quality of life was rated ‘poor’ or ‘very poor’ by 12.2% of participants (7.6–26.1%). Diabetes had a negative impact on all aspects investigated, ranging from 20.5% on relationship with family/friends to 62.2% on physical health. Approximately 40% of participants (18.6–64.9%) reported that their medication interfered with their ability to live a normal life. The availability of person-centred chronic illness care and support for active involvement was rated as low. Following self-care advice for medication and diet was most common, and least common for glucose monitoring and foot examination, with marked country variation. Only 48.8% of respondents had participated in diabetes educational programmes/activities to help manage their diabetes. Conclusions Cross-national benchmarking using psychometrically validated indicators can help identify areas for improvement and best practices to d
Summary Background Sexual behaviour and relationships are key components of wellbeing and are affected by social norms, attitudes, and health. We present data on sexual behaviours and attitudes in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) from the three National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal). Methods We used a multistage, clustered, and stratified probability sample design. Within each of the 1727 sampled postcode sectors for Natsal-3, 30 or 36 addresses were randomly selected and then assigned to interviewers. To oversample individuals aged 16–34 years, we randomly allocated addresses to either the core sample (in which individuals aged 16–74 years were eligible) or the boost sample (in which only individuals aged 16–34 years were eligible). Interviewers visited all sampled addresses between Sept 6, 2010, and Aug 31, 2012, and randomly selected one eligible individual from each household to be invited to participate. Participants completed the survey in their own homes through computer-assisted face-to-face interviews and self-interview. We analysed data from this survey, weighted to account for unequal selection probabilities and non-response to correct for differences in sex, age group, and region according to 2011 Census figures. We then compared data from participants aged 16–44 years from Natsal-1 (1990–91), Natsal-2 (1999–2001), and Natsal-3. Findings Interviews were completed with 15 162 participants (6293 men, 8869 women) from 26 274 eligible addresses (57·7%). 82·1% (95% CI 81·0–83·1%) of men and 77·7% (76·7–78·7%) of women reported at least one sexual partner of the opposite sex in the past year. The proportion generally decreased with age, as did the range of sexual practices with partners of the opposite sex, especially in women. The increased sexual activity and diversity reported in Natsal-2 in individuals aged 16–44 years when compared with Natsal-1 has generally been sustained in Natsal-3, but in men has generally not risen further. However, in women, the number of male sexual partners over the lifetime (age-adjusted odds ratio 1·18, 95% CI 1·08–1·28), proportion reporting ever having had a sexual experience with genital contact with another woman (1·69, 1·43–2·00), and proportion reporting at least one female sexual partner in the past 5 years (2·00, 1·59–2·51) increased in Natsal-3 compared with Natsal-2. While reported number of occasions of heterosexual intercourse in the past 4 weeks had reduced since Natsal-2, we recorded an expansion of heterosexual repertoires—particularly in oral and anal sex—over time. Acceptance of same-sex partnerships and intolerance of non-exclusivity in marriage increased in men and women in Natsal-3. Interpretation Sexual lifestyles in Britain have changed substantially in the past 60 years, with changes in behaviour seeming greater in women than men. The continuation of sexual activity into later life—albeit reduced in range and frequency—emphasises that attention to sexual health and wellbeing is needed throughout the life course. Funding Grants from the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, with support from the Economic and Social Research Council and the Department of Health.
Three times as many cases of measles were reported in the United States in 2014 as in 2013. The reemergence of measles has been linked to a dangerous trend: parents refusing vaccinations for their children. Efforts have been made to counter people’s antivaccination attitudes by providing scientific evidence refuting vaccination myths, but these interventions have proven ineffective. This study shows that highlighting factual information about the dangers of communicable diseases can positively impact people’s attitudes to vaccination. This method outperformed alternative interventions aimed at undercutting vaccination myths.
Three waste management behaviors (waste reduction, reuse, and recycling) were examined with the use of a conceptual framework developed by the author. It was posited that environmental values, situational characteristics, and psychological factors all play a significant role in the prediction of waste management behavior, within the context of a core intention-behavior relationship. The framework was tested in a self-report questionnaire of 673 residents of Exeter, UK. It was found that the predictors of reduction, reuse, and recycling behavior differed significantly, with reduction and reuse being predicted by underlying environmental values, knowledge, and concern-based variables. Recycling behavior was, in contrast, characterized as highly normative behavior. The use of the approach taken for investigating other environmental behaviors is examined.
Aims The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2) study sought cross‐national comparisons of perceptions on healthcare provision for benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices to improve diabetes care. Methods In total, 4785 healthcare professionals caring for people with diabetes across 17 countries participated in an online survey designed to assess diabetes healthcare provision, self‐management and training. Results Between 61.4 and 92.9% of healthcare professionals felt that people with diabetes needed to improve various self‐management activities; glucose monitoring (range, 29.3–92.1%) had the biggest country difference, with a between‐country variance of 20%. The need for a major improvement in diabetes self‐management education was reported by 60% (26.4–81.4%) of healthcare professionals, with a 12% between‐country variance. Provision of diabetes services differed among countries, with many healthcare professionals indicating that major improvements were needed across a range of areas, including healthcare organization [30.6% (7.4–67.1%)], resources for diabetes prevention [78.8% (60.4–90.5%)], earlier diagnosis and treatment [67.9% (45.0–85.5%)], communication between team members and people with diabetes [56.1% (22.3–85.4%)], specialist nurse availability [63.8% (27.9–90.7%)] and psychological support [62.7% (40.6–79.6%)]. In some countries, up to one third of healthcare professionals reported not having received any formal diabetes training. Societal discrimination against people with diabetes was reported by 32.8% (11.4–79.6%) of participants. Conclusions This survey has highlighted concerns of healthcare professionals relating to diabetes healthcare provision, self‐management and training. Identifying between‐country differences in several areas will allow benchmarking and sharing of clinical practices. What's new? The original DAWN study found that diabetes is often associated with multiple psychosocial problems that are barriers to self‐management behaviours, and that current healthcare resources in various countries are poorly equipped or utilized to support people with diabetes. The current DAWN2 study has provided a new in‐depth understanding of the views and needs of healthcare professionals, allowed for cross‐national comparisons and identified areas for improvement to achieve optimal diabetes care. Healthcare professionals stress the importance of improving healthcare organization, as well as addressing emotional problems and improving self‐management activities in people with diabetes.
We administer psychometric tests to senior executives to obtain evidence on their underlying psychological traits and attitudes. We find US CEOs differ significantly from non-US CEOs in terms of their underlying attitudes. In addition, we find that CEOs are significantly more optimistic and risk-tolerant than the lay population. We provide evidence that CEOs' behavioral traits such as optimism and managerial risk-aversion are related to corporate financial policies. Further, we provide new empirical evidence that CEO traits such as risk-aversion and time preference are related to their compensation.
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican–American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican–American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.