This study compared hip fracture rates and health outcomes of older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) to the community. The RACF resident age-standardised hospitalisation rate was five times higher than the community rate and declining. RACF residents experience overall worse health outcomes and survival post-hip fracture.To compare hospitalisation trends, characteristics and health outcomes following a fall-related hip fracture of older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) to older people living in the community.A retrospective analysis of fall-related hip fracture hospitalisations of people aged ≥ 65 years during 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia’s largest populated state. Linked hospitalisation, RACF and Aged Care Assessment Appraisal data collections were examined. Negative binomial regression examined the significance of hospitalisation temporal trends.There were 28,897 hip fracture hospitalisations. One-third were of older people living in RACFs. The hospitalisation rate was 2180 per 100,000 (95%CI: 2097.0–2263.7) for RACF residents and 390 per 100,000 (95%CI 384.8–395.8) for older people living in the community. The hospitalisation rate for RACF residents was estimated to decline by 2.9% annually (95%CI: − 4.3 to − 1.5). Hospital treatment cost for hip fractures was AUD$958.5 million. Compared to older people living in the community, a higher proportion of RACF residents were aged ≥ 90 years (36.1% vs 17.2%), were female (75.3% vs 71.8%), had > 1 Charlson comorbidity (37.6% vs 35.6%) and 58.2% had dementia (vs 14.4%). RACF residents had fewer in-hospital rehabilitation episodes (18.7% vs 60.9%) and a higher proportion of unplanned readmissions (10.6% vs 9.1%) and in-hospital mortality (5.9% vs 3.3%) compared to older people living in the community.RACF residents are a vulnerable cohort of older people who experience worse health outcomes and survival post-hip fracture than older people living in the community. Whether access to individualised hip fracture rehabilitation for RACF residents could improve their health outcomes should be examined.
Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003–2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among adults aged 20–64 years (adults) and seniors aged ≥65 years (seniors). In addition, the contribution of other factors like gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home in explaining variability in BLL was also evaluated by fitting regression models with log10 transformed values of BLL as dependent variables. BLL decreased over 2003–2012 (p < 0.01). Irrespective of gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status, seniors were found to have higher BLL than adults. Based on the magnitude of differences between the 5th and 95th percentiles, variability in the levels of blood lead was found to be substantially higher among seniors than among adults. Males had statistically significantly higher adjusted BLL than females (2.32 vs. 1.76 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.66 vs. 1.13 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic whites had statistically significantly lower adjusted BLL than non-Hispanic blacks (1.99 vs. 2.42 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.22 vs. 1.42 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). When compared with non-smokers, smokers had statistically significantly higher BLL (2.19 vs. 1.86 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.54 vs. 1.22 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-obese had statistically significantly higher BLL than obese individuals (2.11 vs. 1.93 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.48 vs. 1.27 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Exposure to secondhand smoke at home (SHS) was associated with statistically significantly higher BLL than when there was no exposure to SHS (β = 0.0683, p = 0.03 for seniors; β = 0.034, p = 0.034, p < 0.01 for adults).
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the association between risk of malnutrition and 7-year mortality, controlling for functional ability, socio-demographics, lifestyle behavior and diseases, and investigate the interaction between risk of malnutrition and functional ability on the risk of mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A longitudinal study on home-living and special-housing residents aged >= 60 years was conducted. Of 2312 randomly invited participants, 1402 responded and 1203 provided information on both nutritional status and functional ability. The risk of malnutrition was estimated by the occurrence of at least one anthropometric measure (BMI, MAC and CC) below cut-off in addition to the presence of at least one subjective measure (decreased food intake, weight loss and eating difficulty). RESULTS: At baseline, 8.6% of subjects were at risk of malnutrition and during the 7-year follow-up 34.6% subjects died. The risk of malnutrition was independently associated with 7-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-2.65). Additional independent predictors were dementia (HR 2.76, 95% CI 1.85-4.10), activity of daily living (ADL) dependence (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.62-2.67), heart disease (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16-1.78), diabetes (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.93) and older age (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.07-1.10). Moreover, the risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence in combination predicted the poorest survival rate (18.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of malnutrition significantly increases the risk of mortality in older people. Moreover, risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence together explain a significantly poorer survival rate; however, the importance of this interaction decreased in the multivariable model and risk of malnutrition and ADL dependence independently explained a significant risk of mortality.
Background: Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance. Objective: To examine the association between objectively measured sedentary behavior (its total volume and accrual in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts) and all-cause mortality. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Contiguous United States. Participants: 7985 black and white adults aged 45 years or older. Measurements: Sedentary time was measured using a hip-mounted accelerometer. Prolonged, uninterrupted sedentariness was expressed as mean sedentary bout length. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated comparing quartiles 2 through 4 to quartile 1 for each exposure (quartile cut points: 689.7, 746.5, and 799.4 min/d for total sedentary time; 7.7, 9.6, and 12.4 min/bout for sedentary bout duration) in models that included moderate to vigorous physical activity. Results: Over a median follow-up of 4.0 years, 340 participants died. In multivariable-adjusted models, greater total sedentary time (HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.74 to 2.02]; HR, 1.61 [CI, 0.99 to 2.63]; and HR, 2.63 [CI, 1.60 to 4.30]; P for trend = 12.5 h/d] and high bout duration [>= 10 min/bout]) had the greatest risk for death. Limitation: Participants may not be representative of the general U.S. population. Conclusion: Both the total volume of sedentary time and its accrual in prolonged, uninterrupted bouts are associated with all-cause mortality, suggesting that physical activity guidelines should target reducing and interrupting sedentary time to reduce risk for death.
Background. Older adults are at high risk of developing invasive pneumococcal disease, but the optimal timing and number of vaccine doses needed to prevent disease among this group are unknown. We compared revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PN23) with primary vaccination for eliciting initial and persistent functional antibody responses. Methods. Subjects aged ⩾65 years were enrolled. Functional (opsonic) and total immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody levels were measured following either PN23 primary vaccination (n = 60) or revaccination 3–5 years after receiving a first PN23 vaccination (n = 60). Antibody against vaccine serotypes 4, 14, and 23F was measured at prevaccination (day 0), 30 days after vaccination, and 5 years after vaccination. Results. By day 30, both primary vaccination and revaccination induced significant increases in opsonic and IgG antibody levels. Day 30 levels following revaccination were slightly lower but not significantly different than those after primary vaccination. Year 5 levels were similar in both groups and remained significantly higher than prevaccination levels for primary vaccination subjects. There was good agreement between postvaccination opsonic and IgG antibody levels. Conclusions. Revaccination of older adults with PN23 was comparable to primary vaccination for inducing elevated and persistent functional and IgG antibody responses.
Background Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for many diseases. We sought to quantify the burden of tobacco-smoking-related deaths in Asia, in parts of which men's smoking prevalence is among the world's highest. Methods and Findings We performed pooled analyses of data from 1,049,929 participants in 21 cohorts in Asia to quantify the risks of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco smoking using adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. We then estimated smoking-related deaths among adults aged >= 45 y in 2004 in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan-accounting for similar to 71% of Asia's total population. An approximately 1.44-fold (95% CI = 1.37-1.51) and 1.48-fold (1.38-1.58) elevated risk of death from any cause was found in male and female ever-smokers, respectively. In 2004, active tobacco smoking accounted for approximately 15.8% (95% CI = 14.3%-17.2%) and 3.3% (2.6%-4.0%) of deaths, respectively, in men and women aged >= 45 y in the seven countries/regions combined, with a total number of estimated deaths of similar to 1,575,500 (95% CI = 1,398,000-1,744,700). Among men, approximately 11.4%, 30.5%, and 19.8% of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases, respectively, were attributable to tobacco smoking. Corresponding proportions for East Asian women were 3.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7%, respectively. The strongest association with tobacco smoking was found for lung cancer: a 3- to 4-fold elevated risk, accounting for 60.5% and 16.7% of lung cancer deaths, respectively, in Asian men and East Asian women aged >= 45 y. Conclusions Tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially elevated risk of mortality, accounting for approximately 2 million deaths in adults aged >= 45 y throughout Asia in 2004. It is likely that smoking-related deaths in Asia will continue to rise over the next few decades if no effective smoking control programs are implemented. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary Editors' Summary Background Every year, more than 5 million smokers die from tobacco-related diseases. Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (conditions that affect the heart and the circulation), respiratory disease (conditions that affect breathing), lung cancer, and several other types of cancer. All told, tobacco smoking kills up to half its users. The ongoing global "epidemic" of tobacco smoking and tobacco-related diseases initially affected people living in the US and other Western countries, where the prevalence of smoking (the proportion of the population that smokes) in men began to rise in the early 1900s, peaking in the 1960s. A similar epidemic occurred in women about 40 years later. Smoking-related deaths began to increase in the second half of the 20th century, and by the 1990s, tobacco smoking accounted for a third of all deaths and about half of cancer deaths among men in the US and other Western countries. More recently, increased awareness of the risks of smoking and the introduction of various tobacco control measures has led to a steady decline in tobacco use and in smoking-related diseases in many developed countries. Why Was This Study Done? ? Unfortunately, less well-developed tobacco control programs, inadequate public awareness of smoking risks, and tobacco company marketing have recently led to sharp increases in the prevalence of smoking in many low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Asia. More than 50% of men in many Asian countries are now smokers, about twice the prevalence in many Western countries, and more women in some Asian countries are smoking than previously. More than half of the world's billion smokers now live in Asia. However, little is known about the burden of tobacco-related mortality (deaths) in this region. In this study, the researchers quantify the risk of total and cause-specific mortality associated with tobacco use among adults aged 45 years or older by undertaking a pooled statistical analysis of data collected from 21 Asian cohorts (groups) about their smoking history and health. What Did the Researchers Do and Find? ? For their study, the researchers used data from more than 1 million participants enrolled in studies undertaken in Bangladesh, India, mainland China, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan (which together account for 71% of Asia's total population). Smoking prevalences among male and female participants were 65.1% and 7.1%, respectively. Compared with never-smokers, ever-smokers had a higher risk of death from any cause in pooled analyses of all the cohorts (adjusted hazard ratios [HRs] of 1.44 and 1.48 for men and women, respectively; an adjusted HR indicates how often an event occurs in one group compared to another group after adjustment for other characteristics that affect an individual's risk of the event). Compared with never smoking, ever smoking was associated with a higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, cancer (particularly lung cancer), and respiratory disease among Asian men and among East Asian women. Moreover, the researchers estimate that, in the countries included in this study, tobacco smoking accounted for 15.8% of all deaths among men and 3.3% of deaths among women in 2004-a total of about 1.5 million deaths, which scales up to 2 million deaths for the population of the whole of Asia. Notably, in 2004, tobacco smoking accounted for 60.5% of lung-cancer deaths among Asian men and 16.7% of lung-cancer deaths among East Asian women. What Do These Findings Mean? ? These findings provide strong evidence that tobacco smoking is associated with a substantially raised risk of death among adults aged 45 years or older throughout Asia. The association between smoking and mortality risk in Asia reported here is weaker than that previously reported for Western countries, possibly because widespread tobacco smoking started several decades later in most Asian countries than in Europe and North America and the deleterious effects of smoking take some years to become evident. The researchers note that certain limitations of their analysis are likely to affect the accuracy of its findings. For example, because no data were available to estimate the impact of secondhand smoke, the estimate of deaths attributable to smoking is likely to be an underestimate. However, the finding that nearly 45% of the global deaths from active tobacco smoking occur in Asia highlights the urgent need to implement comprehensive tobacco control programs in Asia to reduce the burden of tobacco-related disease. Additional Information Please access these websites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001631. The World Health Organization provides information about the dangers of tobacco (in several languages) and about the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, an international instrument for tobacco control that came into force in February 2005 and requires parties to implement a set of core tobacco control provisions including legislation to ban tobacco advertising and to increase tobacco taxes; its 2013 report on the global tobacco epidemic is available The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides detailed information about all aspects of smoking and tobacco use The UK National Health Services Choices website provides information about the health risks associated with smoking MedlinePlus has links to further information about the dangers of smoking (in English and Spanish) SmokeFree, a website provided by the UK National Health Service, offers advice on quitting smoking and includes personal stories from people who have stopped smoking Smokefree. gov, from the US National Cancer Institute, offers online tools and resources to help people quit smoking
Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) cause a high burden of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Age, race, and ethnicity are important risk factors for ADRD. We estimated the future US burden of ADRD by age, sex, and race and ethnicity by applying subgroup-specific prevalence among Medicare Fee-for-Service beneficiaries aged ≥65 years in 2014 to subgroup-specific population estimates for 2014 and population projection data from the United States Census Bureau for 2015 to 2060. The burden of ADRD in 2014 was an estimated 5.0 million adults aged ≥65 years or 1.6% of the population, and there are significant disparities in ADRD prevalence among population subgroups defined by race and ethnicity. ADRD burden will double to 3.3% by 2060 when 13.9 million Americans are projected to have the disease. These estimates can be used to guide planning and interventions related to caring for the ADRD population and supporting caregivers.
► Molecules designed to realkylate aged cholinesterases are proposed. ► Their X-ray structure in complex with aged butyrylcholinesterase was solved. ► The structures show an orientation of the molecules incompatible with realkylation. ► Better designs based on the X-ray structures are proposed. Organophosphorus nerve agents irreversibly inhibit cholinesterases. Phosphylation of the catalytic serine can be reversed by the mean of powerful nucleophiles like oximes. But the phosphyl adduct can undergo a rapid spontaneous reaction leading to an aged enzyme, i.e., a conjugated enzyme that is no longer reactivable by oximes. One strategy to regain reactivability is to alkylate the phosphylic adduct. Specific alkylating molecules were synthesized and the crystal structures of the complexes they form with soman-aged human butyrylcholinesterase were solved. Although the compounds bind in the active site gorge of the aged enzyme, the orientation of the alkylating function appears to be unsuitable for efficient alkylation of the phosphylic adduct. However, these crystal structures provide key information to design efficient alkylators of aged-butyrylcholinesterase and specific reactivators of butyrylcholinesterase.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has emerged as a critical co-substrate for enzymes involved in the beneficial effects of regular calorie restriction on healthspan. As such, the use of NAD(+) precursors to augment NAD(+) bioavailability has been proposed as a strategy for improving cardiovascular and other physiological functions with aging in humans. Here we provide the evidence in a 2 x 6-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial that chronic supplementation with the NAD(+) precursor vitamin, nicotinamide riboside (NR), is well tolerated and effectively stimulates NAD(+) metabolism in healthy middle-aged and older adults. Our results also provide initial insight into the effects of chronic NR supplementation on physiological function in humans, and suggest that, in particular, future clinical trials should further assess the potential benefits of NR for reducing blood pressure and arterial stiffness in this group.
Few reports are available on the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTOs) in older patients. In the present study, 284 patients who underwent PCI for CTOs were retrospectively evaluated by comparing the characteristics of 67 patients aged ≥75 years (the older group) and 217 patients aged <75 years (the younger group). Technical success was achieved in 77% of the patients in the older group and 79% of those in the younger group (p = 0.66). No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of the incidence of procedural complications. In the older group, a comparison between the patients with successful and failed PCI revealed significantly superior 3-year cardiac survival (97.6% vs 76.9%, p = 0.005). The 3-year cardiac survival of those with successful PCI was similar to that observed in the younger group. On multivariate analysis, successful PCI was found to be associated with a lower incidence of cardiac death in the older group (hazard ratio 0.09, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.91, p = 0.042). In conclusion, this single-center, observational study suggests that PCI for CTOs can be performed with a high rate of procedural success and acceptably low mortality and morbidity in older patients, resulting in improved cardiac survival. Thus, PCI for CTO lesions should be included among the treatment strategies for older patients.