Synthetic pyrethroids, a major insecticide group, are used worldwide to control agricultural and household pests. Mammalian metabolism of pyrethroids was substantially launched in the 1960s and 1970s by the research groups of Professor Casida and Sumitomo Chemical Co., which made great contributions to the elucidation of their metabolic fates. They showed that ester hydrolysis and oxidation play predominant roles in mammalian metabolism of pyrethroids and that rapid metabolism leads to low mammalian toxicity. These metabolic reactions are mediated by carboxylesterases and CYP isoforms, the resultant metabolites then undergoing various conjugation reactions. In general, there are substantially neither significant species differences in metabolic reactions of pyrethoids nor metabolic differences among their chiral isomers except with fenvalerate, one isomer of which yields a lipophilic conjugate causing toxicity.
Gut microbiota are associated with essential various biological functions in humans through a "network" of microbial-host co-metabolism to process nutrients and drugs and modulate the activities of multiple pathways in organ systems that are linked to different diseases. The microbiome impacts strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host, and hence, metabolic readouts can give insights into functional metagenomic activity. We applied an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) based metabonomics approach to profile normal Wistar rats exposed to a broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic imipenem/cilastatin sodium, at 50 mg/kg/daily for 4 days followed by a 14-day recovery period. In-depth metabolic phenotyping allowed identification of a panel of 202 urinary and 223 fecal metabolites significantly related to end points of a functional metagenome (p < 0.05 in at least one day), many of which have not been previously reported such as oligopeptides and carbohydrates. This study shows extensive gut microbiota modulation of host systemic metabolism involving short-chain fatty acids, tryptophan, tyrosine metabolism, and possibly a compensatory mechanism of indole-melatonin production. Given the integral nature of the mammalian genome and metagenome, this panel of metabolites will provide a new platform for potential therapeutic markers and mechanistic solutions to complex problems commonly encountered in pathology, toxicology, or drug metabolism studies.
Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.
Cellular senescence disables proliferation in damaged cells, and it is relevant for cancer and aging. Here, we show that senescence occurs during mammalian embryonic development at multiple locations, including the mesonephros and the endolymphatic sac of the inner ear, which we have analyzed in detail. Mechanistically, senescence in both structures is strictly dependent on p21, but independent of DNA damage, p53, or other cell-cycle inhibitors, and it is regulated by the TGF-β/SMAD and PI3K/FOXO pathways. Developmentally programmed senescence is followed by macrophage infiltration, clearance of senescent cells, and tissue remodeling. Loss of senescence due to the absence of p21 is partially compensated by apoptosis but still results in detectable developmental abnormalities. Importantly, the mesonephros and endolymphatic sac of human embryos also show evidence of senescence. We conclude that the role of developmentally programmed senescence is to promote tissue remodeling and propose that this is the evolutionary origin of damage-induced senescence. Senescence occurs during normal mammalian embryonic development at precisely defined locations and stages, where it participates in tissue remodeling and morphogenesis.
The alternative non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) machinery facilitates several genomic rearrangements, some of which can lead to cellular transformation. This error-prone repair pathway is triggered upon telomere de-protection to promote the formation of deleterious chromosome end-to-end fusions(1-3). Using next-generation sequencing technology, here we show that repair by alternative NHEJ yields non-TTAGGG nucleotide insertions at fusion breakpoints of dysfunctional telomeres. Investigating the enzymatic activity responsible for the random insertions enabled us to identify polymerase theta (Pol theta; encoded by Polq in mice) as a crucial alternative NHEJ factor in mammalian cells. Polq inhibition suppresses alternative NHEJ at dysfunctional telomeres, and hinders chromosomal translocations at non-telomeric loci. In addition, we found that loss of Polq in mice results in increased rates of homology-directed repair, evident by recombination of dysfunctional telomeres and accumulation of RAD51 at double-stranded breaks. Lastly, we show that depletion of Pol theta has a synergistic effect on cell survival in the absence of BRCA genes, suggesting that the inhibition of this mutagenic polymerase represents a valid therapeutic avenue for tumours carrying mutations in homology-directed repair genes.
The epigenomes of early mammalian embryos are extensively reprogrammed to acquire a totipotent developmental potential. A major initial event in this reprogramming is the active loss/demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the zygote. Here, we report on findings that link this active demethylation to molecular mechanisms. We detect 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) as a novel modification in mouse, bovine and rabbit zygotes. On zygotic development 5hmC accumulates in the paternal pronucleus along with a reduction of 5mC. A knockdown of the 5hmC generating dioxygenase Tet3 simultaneously affects the patterns of 5hmC and 5mC in the paternal pronucleus. This finding links the loss of 5mC to its conversion into 5hmC. The maternal pronucleus seems to be largely protected against this mechanism by PGC7/Dppa3/Stella, as in PGC7 knockout zygotes 5mC also becomes accessible to oxidation into 5hmC. In summary, our data suggest an important role of 5hmC and Tet3 for DNA methylation reprogramming processes in the mammalian zygote.
NAD(+) is a vital redox cofactor and a substrate required for activity of various enzyme families, including sirtuins and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases. Supplementation with NAD(+) precursors, such as nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) or nicotinamide riboside (NR), protects against metabolic disease, neurodegenerative disorders and age-related physiological decline in mammals. Here we show that nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 (NRK1) is necessary and rate-limiting for the use of exogenous NR and NMN for NAD(+) synthesis. Using genetic gain-and loss-of-function models, we further demonstrate that the role of NRK1 in driving NAD(+) synthesis from other NAD(+) precursors, such as nicotinamide or nicotinic acid, is dispensable. Using stable isotope-labelled compounds, we confirm NMN is metabolized extracellularly to NR that is then taken up by the cell and converted into NAD(+). Our results indicate that mammalian cells require conversion of extracellular NMN to NR for cellular uptake and NAD(+) synthesis, explaining the overlapping metabolic effects observed with the two compounds.
Production of energy for the maintenance of ionic disequilibria necessary for generation and transmission of nerve impulses is one of the primary functions of the brain. This review attempts to link the plethora of information on the maturation of the central nervous system with the ontogeny of ATP metabolism, placing special emphasis on variations that occur during development in different brain regions and across the mammalian species. It correlates morphological events and markers with biochemical changes in activities of enzymes and pathways that participate in the production of ATP. The paper also evaluates alterations in energy levels as a function of age and, based on the tenet that ATP synthesis and utilization cannot be considered in isolation, investigates maturational profiles of the key processes that utilize energy. Finally, an attempt is made to assess the relevance of currently available animal models to improvement of our understanding of the etiopathology of various disease states in the human infant. This is deemed essential for the development and testing of novel strategies for prevention and treatment of several severe neurological deficits. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.