A direct numerical simulation of incompressible channel flow at a friction Reynolds number (Re-tau) of 5186 has been performed, and the flow exhibits a number of the characteristics of high-Reynolds-number wall hounded turbulent flows. For example, a region where the mean velocity has a logarithmic variation is observed, with von Karman constant K = 0.384 +/- 0.004. There is also a logarithmic dependence of the variance of the spanwise velocity component, though not the streamwise component. A distinct separation of scales exists between the large outer layer structures and small inner-layer structures. At intermediate distances from the wall, the one-dimensional spectrum of the streamwise velocity fluctuation in both the streamwise and spanwise directions exhibits k(-1) dependence over a short range in wavenumber (k). Further, consistent with previous experimental observations, when these spectra are multiplied by k (premultiplied spectra), they have a bimodal structure with local peaks located at wavenumbers on either side of the k(-1) range.
I present a critical review of techniques for estimating confidence intervals on binomial population proportions inferred from success counts in small to intermediate samples. Population proportions arise frequently as quantities of interest in astronomical research; for instance, in studies aiming to constrain the bar fraction, active galactic nucleus fraction, supermassive black hole fraction, merger fraction, or red sequence fraction from counts of galaxies exhibiting distinct morphological features or stellar populations. However, two of the most widely-used techniques for estimating binomial confidence intervals - the 'normal approximation' and the Clopper & Pearson approach - are liable to misrepresent the degree of statistical uncertainty present under sampling conditions routinely encountered in astronomical surveys, leading to an ineffective use of the experimental data (and, worse, an inefficient use of the resources expended in obtaining that data). Hence, I provide here an overview of the fundamentals of binomial statistics with two principal aims: (I) to reveal the ease with which (Bayesian) binomial confidence intervals with more satisfactory behaviour may be estimated from the quantiles of the beta distribution using modern mathematical software packages (e. g. R, MATLAB, MATHEMATICA, IDL, PYTHON); and (II) to demonstrate convincingly the major flaws of both the 'normal approximation' and the Clopper & Pearson approach for error estimation.
Proton and carbon-13 nmr spectra of unsonicated lipid bilayers and biological membranes are generally dominated by strong proton–proton and proton–carbon dipolar interactions. As a result the spectra contain a large number of overlapping resonances and are rather difficult to analyse. Nevertheless, important information on the structure and dynamic behaviour of lipid systems has been provided by these techniques (Wennerström & Lindblom, 1977).
This systematic review collated seventy-eight studies exploring waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) or BMI as predictors of diabetes and CVD, published in English between 1950 and 2008. Twenty-two prospective analyses showed that WHtR and WC were significant predictors of these cardiometabolic outcomes more often than BMI, with similar OR, sometimes being significant predictors after adjustment for BMI. Observations from cross-sectional analyses, forty-four in adults, thirteen in children, supported these predictions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed mean area under ROC (AUROC) values of 0.704, 0.693 and 0.671 for WHtR, WC and BMI, respectively. Mean boundary values for WHtR, covering all cardiometabolic outcomes, from studies in fourteen different countries and including Caucasian, Asian and Central American subjects, were 0.50 for men and 0.50 for women. WHtR and WC are therefore similar predictors of diabetes and CVD, both being stronger than, and independent of, BMI. To make firmer statistical comparison, a meta-analysis is required. The AUROC analyses indicate that WHtR may be a more useful global clinical screening tool than WC, with a weighted mean boundary value of 0.5, supporting the simple public health message 'keep your waist circumference to less than half your height'.
In this paper we present an exact and explicit nonlinear solution of a beta-plane approximation to the governing equations which retains all Coriolis terms. The solution represents an equatorially trapped wave propagating in the presence of a constant underlying background current. In particular, we show that retention of the (relatively) small-scale centripetal forces in the governing equations enables us to admit currents of any physically plausible magnitude in the background flow.
Brains, it has recently been argued, are essentially prediction machines. They are bundles of cells that support perception and action by constantly attempting to match incoming sensory inputs with top-down expectations or predictions. This is achieved using a hierarchical generative model that aims to minimize prediction error within a bidirectional cascade of cortical processing. Such accounts offer a unifying model of perception and action, illuminate the functional role of attention, and may neatly capture the special contribution of cortical processing to adaptive success. This target article critically examines this "hierarchical prediction machine" approach, concluding that it offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action. Sections 1 and 2 lay out the key elements and implications of the approach. Section 3 explores a variety of pitfalls and challenges, spanning the evidential, the methodological, and the more properly conceptual. The paper ends (sections 4 and 5) by asking how such approaches might impact our more general vision of mind, experience, and agency.
The linear instability and breakdown to turbulence induced by an isolated roughness element in a boundary layer at Mach 2 : 5, over an isothermal flat plate with laminar adiabatic wall temperature, have been analysed by means of direct numerical simulations, aided by spatial BiGlobal and three-dimensional parabolized (PSE-3D) stability analyses. It is important to understand transition in this flow regime since the process can be slower than in incompressible flow and is crucial to prediction of local heat loads on next-generation flight vehicles. The results show that the roughness element, with a height of the order of the boundary layer displacement thickness, generates a highly unstable wake, which is composed of a low-velocity streak surrounded by a three-dimensional high-shear layer and is able to sustain the rapid growth of a number of instability modes. The most unstable of these modes are associated with varicose or sinuous deformations of the low-velocity streak; they are a consequence of the instability developing in the three-dimensional shear layer as a whole (the varicose mode) or in the lateral shear layers (the sinuous mode). The most unstable wake mode is of the varicose type and grows on average similar to 17% faster than the most unstable sinuous mode and similar to 30 times faster than the most unstable boundary layer mode occurring in the absence of a roughness element. Due to the high growth-rates registered in the presence of the roughness element, an amplification factor of N = 9 is reached within similar to 50 roughness heights from the roughness trailing edge. The independently performed Navier-Stokes, spatial BiGlobal and PSE-3D stability results are in excellent agreement with each other, validating the use of simplified theories for roughness-induced transition involving wake instabilities. Following the linear stages of the laminar-turbulent transition process, the roll-up of the three-dimensional shear layer leads to the formation of a wedge of turbulence, which spreads laterally at a rate similar to that observed in the case of compressible turbulent spots for the same Mach number.
Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.
Impulsivity and compulsivity represent useful conceptualizations that involve dissociable cognitive functions, which are mediated by neuroanatomically and neurochemically distinct components of cortico-subcortical circuitry. The constructs were historically viewed as diametrically opposed, with impulsivity being associated with risk-seeking and compulsivity with harm-avoidance. However, they are increasingly recognized to be linked by shared neuropsychological mechanisms involving dysfunctional inhibition of thoughts and behaviors. In this article, we selectively review new developments in the investigation of the neurocognition of impulsivity and compulsivity in humans, in order to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of impulsive, compulsive, and addictive disorders and indicate new directions for research.
The complete description of the lifetime of a droplet on a solid substrate evaporating in a 'stick-slide' mode is obtained. The unexpectedly subtle relationship between the lifetime of such a droplet and the lifetimes of initially identical droplets evaporating in the extreme modes (namely the constant contact radius and constant contact angle modes) is described and summarised in an appropriate master diagram. In particular, it is shown that the lifetime of a droplet is not, in general, constrained by the lifetimes of the extreme modes.