Display omitted] We here report the synthesis of novel chalcone-sulfonamide compounds based on the hybridization at 2′ position and nitro substitution at the side chalcone phenyl ring followed by tandem cyclization into quinolinone derivatives and then a further aldol condensation only as a function of the reaction time. Therefore, for the first time, we have controlled the sequential preparation of chalcone-sulfonamide hybrids, quinolinones and then (E)-3-ene-2,3-dihydroquinolinones simply stopping reaction over increasing time periods. Furthermore, a new molecular scaffold based on a chalcone-(bis)sulfonamide hybrid has been gotten through changing the sequence of coupling reactions and catalyst. This study means practical and useful ways of constructing in high yields new biologically active compounds bearing diversified molecular scaffolds.
Perceptual-motor sequences can be learned quickly under distraction, often demonstrated by the mean reaction time (RT) change in a serial reaction time (SRT) task. However, any arbitrary mean RT can arise from one of many distinct trial-by-trial RT patterns. It is surprising that previous sequence learning studies have hinged only on the mean RT metrics while little is known about the distraction effect on its trial-by-trial processes. In an SRT task with or without distraction, we found that initially learning a fixed repeating sequence without distraction was expressed by a micro-online learning process where reaction time (RT) progressively improved within learning blocks as adults continuously performed the SRT task. Such online RT improvements, however, vanished when the SRT task was performed under distraction. Despite the detrimental effect of distraction on micro-online RT improvements, we observed offline enhancements in RT following rest intervals of 3 min that emerged to secure sequence learning under distraction. We reasoned that distraction may exert influence on the micro-online and offline learning by mediating the engagement of explicit and implicit memory. Given the offline RT change under distraction, a short rest between learning blocks may be a key player in early perceptual-motor sequence learning under distraction. We thus suggest that future studies investigating the distraction effect on sequence learning need to control the length of rest between learning blocks, while previous research with equivocal interpretations of the distraction effect failed to do so.
Mitragyna speciosa (MS), a plant commonly known as kratom, is a widely used “legal high” opiate alternative for pain relief. DNA extracted from MS and 26 additional plant species was amplified by PCR using primers targeting the strictosidine beta‐D‐glucosidase (SGD) and secologanin synthase 2 (SLS2) genes and detected by high‐resolution melt curves using three intercalating dyes. Amplicon sizes were confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis. The observed melt temperatures for SGD and SLS2 were 77.08 ± 0.38°C and 77.61 ± 0.46°C, respectively, using SYBR® Green I; 80.18 ± 0.27°C and 80.59 ± 0.08°C, respectively, using Radiant™ Green; and 82.19 ± 0.04°C and 82.62 ± 0.13°C, respectively, using the LCGreen® PLUS dye. The SLS2 primers demonstrated higher specificity and identified MS DNA at 0.05 ng/μL. In a duplex reaction, SLS2 and tetrahydrocannabinoic acid synthase gene primers detected and differentiated MS and Cannabis sativa (CS) by melt peaks at 82.63 ± 0.35°C and 85.58 ± 0.23°C, respectively, using LCGreen® PLUS.
Sequence learning underlies numerous motor, cognitive, and social skills. Previous models and empirical investigations of sequence learning in humans and non-human animals have implicated cortico-basal ganglia-cerebellar circuitry as well as other structures. To systematically examine the functional neuroanatomy of sequence learning in humans, we conducted a series of neuroanatomical meta-analyses. We focused on the serial reaction time (SRT) task. This task, which is the most widely used paradigm for probing sequence learning in humans, allows for the rigorous control of visual, motor, and other factors. Controlling for these factors (in sequence-random block contrasts), sequence learning yielded consistent activation only in the basal ganglia, across the striatum (anterior/mid caudate nucleus and putamen) and the globus pallidus. In contrast, when visual, motor, and other factors were not controlled for (in a global analysis with all sequence-baseline contrasts, not just sequence-random contrasts), premotor cortical and cerebellar activation were additionally observed. The study provides solid evidence that, at least as tested with the visuo-motor SRT task, sequence learning in humans relies on the basal ganglia, whereas cerebellar and premotor regions appear to contribute to aspects of the task not related to sequence learning itself. The findings have both basic research and translational implications. •Using ALE, we synthesized the functional neuroanatomical data on sequence learning.•We focused on the widely used serial reaction time (SRT) task paradigm.•Sequence learning (sequence > random contrast) showed only basal ganglia activation.•This was found in the anterior/mid caudate and putamen, and in the globus pallidus.•Cerebellar/premotor activation was linked to other (visual/motor) SRT task factors.
Coagulopathy is common in multitrauma patients and repletion of procoagulant factor deficiency with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) improves hemostasis. Optimal kaolin-thromboelastography thresholds for FFP transfusion in trauma patients have not been well established. Adult trauma patients with an Injury Severity Score ≥15 were included in this retrospective observational cohort study. The primary end point was area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) for reaction time (R-time) to detect procoagulant factor deficiency, as reflected by an elevated international normalized ratio (INR) or aPTT. Test characteristics for the optimal R-time threshold calculated in our study were compared against thresholds recommended by the American College of Surgeons for FFP transfusion. Six hundred and ninety-four pairs of thromboelastography and conventional coagulation tests were performed in 550 patients, with 144 patients having additional pairs of tests after the first hour. The R-time was able to detect procoagulant factor deficiency (INR ≥1.5 AUROC 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; aPTT ≥40 seconds AUROC 0.85; 95% 0.80 to 0.89) and severe procoagulant factor deficiency (INR ≥2.0 AUROC 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.99; aPTT ≥60 seconds AUROC 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98) with good accuracy. Optimal thresholds to maximize sensitivity and specificity were 3.9 minutes for detection of INR ≥1.5, 4.1 minutes for detection of aPTT ≥40 seconds, 4.3 minutes for detection of INR ≥2.0, and 4.3 for detection of aPTT ≥60 seconds. Currently recommended R-time thresholds for FFP transfusion had 100% specificity for detecting procoagulant factor deficiency, but low sensitivity (3% to 7%). R-time can detect procoagulant factor deficiency in multitrauma patients with good accuracy, but currently recommended R-time thresholds are highly specific and not sensitive. Use of low-sensitivity thresholds might result in undertreatment of many patients with procoagulant factor deficiency.
•ADHD and BD shared a cognitive impairment observed as infrequent slow responses (tau) in the slow, unrewarded condition of the fast task.•A BD-specific impairment emerged in the variability of typical RT responses (sigma), on the incongruent condition of the arrow flanker task.•These shared and BD-specific impairments represent potential cognitive markers that should be further investigated in future studies with both men and women with the disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) show certain overlapping features, such as increased reaction time variability. Here, we tested whether more detailed ex-Gaussian reaction time distribution measures identify shared or disorder-specific impairments in ADHD and BD. The total assessed sample consisted of 60 women (20 each in ADHD, BD and control groups). We compared the groups on ex-Gaussian measures of mu, sigma, and tau from a flanker task (congruent and incongruent conditions), an oddball task, and a four-choice reaction time task (baseline and fast-incentive conditions of the `fast task'). The ex-Gaussian measures mu and sigma reflect the speed and variability of typical responses, while tau captures variability in infrequent slow responses. Compared to controls, both ADHD and BD groups showed significantly increased tau in the fast task baseline condition. Participants with BD further showed a significantly increased sigma compared to ADHD and control groups in the flanker task incongruent condition. Our findings indicate that the ex-Gaussian approach is informative in detecting shared and disorder-specific cognitive impairments in ADHD and BD that may represent objective markers of these two disorders.
Research in humans and animal models suggests that visual responses in early visual cortical areas may be modulated by top-down influences from distant cortical areas, particularly in the frontal and parietal regions. The right posterior parietal cortex is part of a broad cortical network involved in aspects of visual search and attention, but its role in modulating activity in early visual cortical areas is less well understood. This study evaluated the influence of right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on a direct measure of visual processing in humans. Contrast sensitivity (CS) and detection response times were recorded using a visual detection paradigm to two types of centrally-presented stimuli. Participants were tested on the detection task before, after, and 1 hour after low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right PPC or to the scalp vertex. Low-frequency rTMS to the right PPC did not significantly change measures of contrast sensitivity, but increased the speed at which participants responded to visual stimuli of low spatial frequency. Response times returned to baseline 1-hour after rTMS. These data indicate that low frequency rTMS to the right PPC speeds up aspects of early visual processing, likely due to a disinhibition of the homotopic left posterior parietal cortex.
White tea has become very popular in recent years, but there has been no scientific identification of white tea from different origins. For product authentication and valorization, every kind of white tea must be marked with an indication of its origin. Volatile profiles of white tea leaf samples from their main origins in China (Fuding City, Zhenghe County, and Jianyang City) were analyzed by proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). Tentative identifications of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were obtained by PTR-TOF-MS of the headspace. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were performed to evaluate the differences among the different origins. Teas from different origins were shown to have characteristic VOCs and profiles. Thus, white teas from different origins could be separated by characterizing the volatile emissions from the dry tea leaves. The ability of the two classification models to use the volatile fingerprints in origin discrimination was investigated. Two classification models (PCA and OPLS-DA) were applied to the PTR-TOF-MS data obtained from the VOCs obtained from different white teas. The classification models were shown to be useful in identifying the origin of white tea samples, providing a reference for white tea identification.