Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box–Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r ) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5 ng g dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323 ng g d.w. in sediment and samples, respectively).
Low carbon dioxide (CO ) emissions are the foundation on which to realize the sustainable development of a green China. Recently in Beijing, the capital of China, serious environmental pollution-climate anomaly, severe haze and human sub-health have been accorded more importance. This study examines the energy-related CO emissions generated by Beijing industries from 2000 to 2010 by using an input–output analysis method. The direct, indirect and total CO emissions of sectors in Beijing were calculated. In addition, structural decomposition analysis (SDA) was conducted to evaluate the driving factors from the perspective of technology, sectoral connection, economic structure and economic scale. The results show that the growth rate of sectoral CO emissions in Beijing has drastically increased during this time with a moderate decline during 2007–2010. The metal and non-metal mining industries, the electric power, gas and water supply sector and the construction industry caused the most CO emissions. The economic structure change and the rapid economic growth led to the significant increase in CO emissions growth in Beijing. Thus, optimizing the economic structure and improving the technology are important to alleviate CO emissions. Although we can currently appropriately utilize fossil fuels, further research on new energy and clean development, as well as enhanced government management strength is required to reduce CO emissions.