This report describes a low cost teaching equipment designed for the experimental verificatian of the conservation of Energy by High School students. It includes a brief otuline of the theory of the experiment, description of experimental procedures, an analysis of results and drawings and instructions so as to allow the reproduction fo the apparatus.
The mountains of Europe, especially in the Mediterranean, have undergone a significant process of revegetation since the mid-20th century with the spread of shrublands and forests in succession stages. This leads to negative effects (degradation of pasture, accumulation of biomass with the subsequent increase in fire risk, loss or trivialized of cultural landscapes, etc.) and other positive ones (greater rewilding of landscapes, recovery of forest life, more CO2 fixation, less soil erosion, etc.). Thus, two alternatives must be put forward: either allow the rewilding process to continue, or intervene in the region to reduce the negative effects of revegetation.In this paper, the literature forms the base for a discussion on the main interventions in the territory: extensive livestock grazing, combined with prescribed fires and shrub clearing. Prescribed fires are found to be insufficient to control the spread of shrublands, and in some cases promotes its regrowth (Echinospartum horridum), as well as degrading the pasture land and increasing soil erosion. On the other hand, clearing shrubland has positive effects: a reduction in wildfires, increased livestock numbers, and improved indicators of heterogeneity and fragmentation of the landscape.
La conservación de la biodiversidad puede ser más ética y eficaz enfocando simultáneamente la erosión biológica y cultural. Esta idea se encuentra en los postulados funcionales y éticos iniciales de la biología de la conservación. Sin embargo la investigación para la conservación ha enfatizado los inventarios, la cuantificación y la georreferenciación de la diversidad biológica con miras a su utilización. Se le asigna poca relevancia al valor intrínseco de la biodiversidad ante lo cual se hacen llamados a explorar formas apropiadas de “vivir con” la biodiversidad.Esta reflexión responde a ese llamado. Introduce el enfoque biocultural como una perspectiva más comprehensiva para reconocer e investigar las complejas interrelaciones entre procesos ecológicos y dinámicas culturales. Para la investigación se resalta de este enfoque la necesidad de reconocer los derechos de los pueblos indígenas y comunidades locales, al igual que las cosmovisiones que le dan sentido a las prácticas y relaciones que las comunidades establecen con el ambiente. Se explora la base de datos Scienti del período 1991- 2010 en cuanto al registro de investigaciones sobre biodiversidad que involucran conocimiento tradicional y comunidades. Dado el limitado reconocimiento a las contribuciones de las comunidades, se reseñan las principales barreras que encuentra la adopción del enfoque biocultural en investigación. Se proponen premisas éticas orientadas a transformar actitudes y prácticas en investigación que desconocen derechos ancestrales sobre el territorio y el conocimiento, obstaculizan el reconocimiento del valor intrínseco de la biodiversidad, y como resultado impiden garantizar su conservación en un territorio biodiverso, pluriétnico y multicultural. AbstractThe conservation of biodiversity may be deemed ethical and more effective by focusing simultaneously on biological and cultural erosion. This idea was in the functional and ethical principles of the initial understanding in conservation biology. However, biological conservation research has emphasized inventories, quantification and georeferencing biodiversity with utilitarian purposes. Such research gives little importance to the intrinsic value of biodiversity provoking calls to explore appropriate ways of “living with” biodiversity. This paper responds to that call. The biocultural approach offers a more comprehensive view to recognize and investigate the complex interrelationships between ecological processes and cultural dynamics. For research, this approach highlights the need to recognize the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, as well as the community worldviews that infuse meaning to community practices and relations with the environment. This paper explores biodiversity research data involving traditional knowledge and communities during the period 1991- 2010 in the GroupLac Database. Given the limited recognition to the contributions of communities, this paper outlines the main barriers that the adoption of the biocultural approach faces. The paper proposes ethical guidelines to transform research attitudes and practices that ignore ancestral rights over the territory and traditional knowledge, hinder the recognition of the intrinsic value of biodiversity, and as a result, prevent conservation in a biodiverse, multiethnic and multicultural territory
The origins of ethology as a discipline are explained and is a proof of the Darwinian theory of the action of natural selection leading to the adaptive strategies that allow survival of living organisms. The emergence of behavioral ecology stands out as an important tool for the conservation of biological diversity. Its premises are explained, as well as several examples of behavior that affect the effective size of populations and anthropogenic impacts on various behaviors.Finally, the use of behavioral ecology as an indicator of the state of ecosystems and species and to develop environmental education is exemplified.
The aim of this research was to evaluate different methods of preservation for actinobacteria with phosphate solubilization activity due to there are a few specific methods reported for these organisms. The methods were evaluated at three different time periods; long, medium and short-term and employing methods as cryopreservation and dry-freezing; clay, silica and sand; and periodically plating, respectively. Therefore 15 isolates from 3 different locations (La Vega, Man and Tota) and a bank reference from Livestock Research Unit of the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana were used. All inocula were prepared in 0.85% saline solution (w/v) which were adjusted to a concentration of 108 cells/mL, followed each vial was inoculated with their respective storage cryoprotectants , glycerol 20% (v/v), 30% (v/v) to freeze and 18% skim milk (w/v) for dry-freezing. Medium-term methods were performed similarly; the inoculum was added to 10 clay beads, 10 g of sand and 5 g of silica and then stored at 4 C. The short-term method was evaluated in oatmeal agar (15 g/L). The evaluation was performed by direct counting in a Neubauer chamberusing trypan blue staining technique, in addition to macroscopic and microscopic characterization of each isolate in periodic plating. It was established that the phosphorus solubilizing activity was more stable in glycerol 30% (w/v) and lyophilization for statistical analysis.
The Scolytinae and Platypodinae are group of widely distributed tropical insects that are capable of using a wide range of hosts. The study of diversity associated with conservation sites allows estimating the richness and abundance of species, their population dynamics as well as understanding the population behavior over time. The species richness and abundance of Scolytinae and Platypodinae was studied in the Chontalpa Ecological Reserve (REC) and the José Narciso Rovirosa Botanical Garden (JBU) in Tabasco, Mexico. Insects were captured with ethyl alcohol traps. A total of 7 057 specimens belonging to 46 species and 26 genera were collected and identified; 42 species from 23 genera belong to Scolytinae and four species from three genera to Platypodinae. The species Bothrosternus foveatus (Blackman, 1943); Dendroterus luteolus (Schedl, 1951); Dendrocranulus guatemalensis (Hopkins, 1915); Micracis swainei (Blackman, 1920); Pseudothysanoes tenellus (Wood, 1971) y Ambrosiodmus obliquus (Leconte, 1878) are new records for the state of Tabasco. The species Corthylus papulans Eichhoff, 1869 with 2 509 specimens (35.55); Xyleborus volvulus (Fabricius, 1775) with 1 435 (20.33); and Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, 1868 with 1 061 (15.03) were the most common species, representing 70.9 % of total. The population dynamics of these insects showed its highest peak during February and March with 2 728 specimens in JBU and December with 322 in REC of year 2010.