The occurrence and fate of UV filters (UV F) in an urban aquifer in correlation with (1) the spatial distribution of UV Fin Barcelona's groundwater, (2) the depth of the groundwater sample, (3) the physicochemical properties of the target compounds, (4) the recharge sources, and (5) the redox conditions of the Barcelona aquifers, were studied for the first time. The highest groundwater concentrations and the largest number of detected UV F were observed in an aquifer recharged by a polluted river (around 55 ng/L in SAP-4). In contrast, the urbanized areas had lower concentrations (around 20 ng/L in MPSP-1). Two pathways can be identified for UV F to enter the aquifers: (1) leakage of row sewage from the sewage network in urbanized areas and (2) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents discharged into the river. Measured concentrations of UV F were significantly much lower than those estimated from the waste water proportion in groundwater samples suggesting that UV F might undergo transformation processes in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Organic UV filters are common ingredients of personal care products (PCPs), but little is known about their distribution in and potential impacts to the marine environment. This study reports the occurrence and risk assessment of twelve widely used organic UV filters in surface water collected in eight cities in four countries (China, the United States, Japan, and Thailand) and the North American Arctic. The number of compounds detected, Hong Kong (12), Tokyo (9), Bangkok (9), New York (8), Los Angeles (8), Arctic (6), Shantou (5) and Chaozhou (5), generally increased with population density. Median concentrations of all detectable UV filters were <250 ng/L. The presence of these compounds in the Arctic is likely due to a combination of inadequate wastewater treatment and long-range oceanic transport. Principal component analysis (PCA) and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to explore spatiotemporal patterns and difference in organic UV filter levels in Hong Kong. In general, spatial patterns varied with sampling month and all compounds showed higher concentrations in the wet season except benzophenone-4 (BP-4). Probabilistic risk assessment showed that 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) posed greater risk to algae, while benzophenone-3 (BP-3) and ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) were more likely to pose a risk to fishes and also posed high risk of bleaching in hard corals in aquatic recreational areas in Hong Kong. This study is the first to report the occurrence of organic UV filters in the Arctic and provides a wider assessment of their potential negative impacts in the marine environment.
Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18–1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and 70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.
The UV filters and musk fragrances have come into focus because these compounds are contained and increasingly used not only in sunscreen products but also in many products of daily use, such as cosmetics, skin creams, plastics or varnish. In view of this, the main objective of the present work was to develop and validate a method for the determination of three UV filters, two UV stabilizers and four musks in mussel samples ( ). The procedure combined a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) extraction method with an analysis by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS). The methodology allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentration levels (ng/g), with mean recoveries ranging from 91 to 112%. A monitoring study was conducted in four beaches in the Portuguese coast which are impacted by recreational activities and outflow of treated waste water effluents in rivers. The results are used to assess the occurrence of UV filters in comparison with UV stabilizers and musk fragrances which indicate other activities than bathing.
Biomonitoring of human exposure to bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers (BADGEs; resin coating for food cans), -hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens; preservatives), benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters; sunscreen agents), triclosan (TCS; antimicrobials), and triclocarban (TCC; antimicrobials) has been investigated in western European countries and North America. Nevertheless, little is known about the exposure of Greek populations to these environmental chemicals. In this study, 100 urine samples collected from Athens, Greece, were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of total concentrations of five derivatives of BADGEs, six parabens and their metabolite (ethyl-protocatechuate), five derivatives of BP-UV filters, TCS, and TCC. Urinary concentrations of BADGEs, parabens, ethyl-protocatechuate, BP-UV filters, TCS and TCC (on a volume basis) ranged 0.3–20.9 (geometric mean: 0.9), 1.6–1010 (24.2), < 2–71.0 (2.1), 0.5–1120 (4.4), < 0.5–2580 (8.0) and < 0.5–1.9 (0.6) ng/mL, respectively. All 19 target chemicals were found in urine, and the highest detection rates were observed for methyl paraben (100%), bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) ether (90%), ethyl paraben (87%), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (78%), propyl paraben (72%), and TCS (71%). Estimated daily intakes (EDI ), calculated on the basis of the measured urinary concentrations, ranged from 0.023 μg/kg bw/day for Σ BADGEs to 31.4 μg/kg bw/day for Σ Parabens.
Due to the concern about the negative effects of exposure to sunlight, combinations of UV filters like 4-Methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC), Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-Ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) are being introduced in all kind of cosmetic formulas. These chemicals are acquiring a concerning status due to their increasingly common use and the potential risk for the environment. The aim of this study is to assess the behaviour of these compounds in seawater, the toxicity to marine organisms from three trophic levels including autotrophs ( ), herbivores ( and ) and carnivores ( ), and set a preliminary assessment of potential ecological risk of UV filters in coastal ecosystems. In general, EC results show that both EHMC and 4-MBC are the most toxic for our test species, followed by BP-3 and finally BP-4. The most affected species by the presence of these UV filters are the microalgae , which showed toxicity thresholds in the range of μg L units, followed by > > The UV filter concentrations measured in the sampled beach water were in the range of tens or even hundreds of ng L . The resulting risk quotients showed appreciable environmental risk in coastal environments for BP-3 and 4-MBC.
This study reports the removal of 30 diverse trace organic contaminants (TrOC) by live (biosorption + biodegradation), intracellular enzyme-inhibited and chemically inactivated (biosorption only) whole-cell preparations and the fungal extracellular enzyme extract (predominantly laccase) from (ATCC 7731). Because phenolic substrates are amenable to degradation by laccase, all 14 phenolic TrOC were readily biodegraded. On the other hand, only eight of the 16 non-phenolic TrOC were readily biodegraded while the removal of hydrophilic TrOC (log < 3) was negligible. With the exception of diclofenac, no non-phenolic TrOC were degraded by the extracellular enzyme extract. The whole-cell culture showed considerably higher degradation of at least seven compounds, indicating the importance of biosorption and subsequent degradation by intracellular and/or mycelium associated enzymes. Improvement (20–90%) of enzymatic degradation of four phenolic and seven non-phenolic TrOC was achieved in the presence of a redox mediator. Compared with the whole-cell culture, mediator-amended extracellular extract achieved better removal of six TrOC, but lower removal of six others. A particular concern was the increased toxicity of the treated media when the redox-mediator was used. In addition to reporting the white-rot fungal removal of two UV filters, three phytoestrogens and a few other pharmaceutically active TrOC for the first time, this study provides unique insights into their removal mechanisms.
An analytical method to determine the total content (i.e., not only in the soluble fraction but also in the particulate one) of eight commonly used UV filters in seawater samples is presented for the first time. Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) is used as microextraction technique to pre-concentrate the target analytes before their determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). In order to release the UV filters from the suspended particles an ultrasound treatment is performed before DLLME. The ultrasound treatment time was studied in order to achieve a quantitative lixiviation of the target analytes. The type and volume of both disperser and extraction solvent, the sample volume, the pH and the ionic strength involved in the DLLME have been optimized to provide the best enrichment factors. Under the optimized conditions, the method was successfully validated showing good linearity, enrichment factors between 112 and 263 depending on the analyte, limits of detection and quantification in the low ng L range (10–30 ng L and 33–99 ng L , respectively) and good intra- and inter-day repeatability (RSD <15%). No significant matrix effects were found. Finally, the method was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of three seawater samples from different origin. Results showed significant amounts of UV filters in the particulate fraction that would have been ignored if only the soluble fraction had been considered. This fact shows that the UV filters are also accumulated in the suspended particles contained in water, what should be taken into account from an environmental standpoint.
The increased awareness of protection against UV radiation damages has led to a rise in the use of topically applied chemical sunscreen agents and to an increased need of innovative carriers designed to achieve the highest protective effect and reduce the toxicological risk resulting from the percutaneous absorption of these substances. In this paper, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE) were formulated to optimize the topical application of different and widespread UVA or UVB sun filters (ethyl hexyltriazone (EHT), diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB), bemotrizinol (Tinosorb S), octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and avobenzone (AVO)). The preparation and stability parameters of these nanocarriers have been investigated concerning particle size and zeta potential. The release pattern of the sunscreens from NLC and NE was evaluated in vitro, determining their percutaneous absorption through excised human skin. Additional in vitro studies were performed in order to evaluate, after UVA radiation treatment, the spectral stability of the sunfilters once formulated in NLC or NE. From the results obtained, when incorporated in NLC, the skin permeation abilities of the sun filter were drastically reduced, remaining mainly on the surface of the skin. The photostability studies showed that EHT, DHHB and Tinosorb S still retain their photostability when incorporated in these carriers, while OMC and AVO were not photostable as expected. However, no significant differences in terms of photoprotective efficacy between the two carriers were observed.