► Fifty-three emerging pollutants measured in sewage, surface and drinking water. ► Nineteen compounds detected in sewage at median values higher than 0.1 μg L. ► Eleven of them not properly eliminated and still higher than 0.1 μg L in effluent. ► Pharmaceuticals, UV filters and organoP flame retardants prevail in surface water. ► BP-4, TnBP, TCEP and several organoP diesters found in drinking water at 10–100 ng L . A monitoring programme was carried out on wastewater, surface and drinking water on the NW area of Spain during the four seasons of a year period (November 2007–September 2008). This study covered a series of emerging pollutants of different classes, including pharmaceuticals, neutral and acidic organophosphorus flame retardant/plasticizers (OPs), triclosan, phenoxy-herbicides, insect repellents and UV filters. From the total set of 53 compounds, 19 were found in raw wastewater with median concentrations higher than 0.1 μg L . Among them, salicylic acid, ibuprofen and the UV filter benzophenone-4 (BP-4) were the most concentrated, exceeding the 1 μg L median value. Subsequently, 11 of these contaminants are not efficiently enough removed in the small WWTPs tested and their median concentrations in effluents still surpassed the 0.1 μg L , so that they can spread through surface water. These chemicals are the pharmaceuticals naproxen, diclofenac and atenolol; the OPs tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tri(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), tri- -butyl phosphate (TnBP), diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) and diethylhexyl phosphate (DEHP); and the sulphonate UV filters BP-4 and 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulphonic acid (PBSA). These OPs were then the dominant emerging pollutants occurring in surface and drinking water, where they are detected in the 20–200 ng L range. Pharmaceuticals and UV filters are typically below the 10 ng L level. Finally, herbicides were only detected in the last sampling campaign under the 100 ng L drinking water European Union limit.
A simple wipe sampling procedure was developed for the surface contamination determination of ten cytotoxic drugs: cytarabine, gemcitabine, methotrexate, etoposide phosphate, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, irinotecan, doxorubicin, epirubicin and vincristine. Wiping was performed using Whatman filter paper on different surfaces such as stainless steel, polypropylene, polystyrol, glass, latex gloves, computer mouse and coated paperboard. Wiping and desorption procedures were investigated: The same solution containing 20% acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water gave the best results. After ultrasonic desorption and then centrifugation, samples were analysed by a validated liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring mode. The whole analytical strategy from wipe sampling to LC–MS/MS analysis was evaluated to determine quantitative performance. The lowest limit of quantification of 10 ng per wiping sample (i.e. 0.1 ng cm−2) was determined for the ten investigated cytotoxic drugs. Relative standard deviation for intermediate precision was always inferior to 20%. As recovery was dependent on the tested surface for each drug, a correction factor was determined and applied for real samples. The method was then successfully applied at the cytotoxic production unit of the Geneva University Hospitals pharmacy. Figure Wipe sampling procedure for the determination of cytotoxic drugs
Lung cancer is mainly caused by smoking, but the quantitative relations between smoking and histologic subtypes of lung cancer remain inconclusive. By using one of the largest lung cancer datasets ever assembled, we explored the impact of smoking on risks of the major cell types of lung cancer. This pooled analysis included 13,169 cases and 16,010 controls from Europe and Canada. Studies with population controls comprised 66.5% of the subjects. Adenocarcinoma (AdCa) was the most prevalent subtype in never smokers and in women. Squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) predominated in male smokers. Age‐adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with logistic regression. ORs were elevated for all metrics of exposure to cigarette smoke and were higher for SqCC and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) than for AdCa. Current male smokers with an average daily dose of >30 cigarettes had ORs of 103.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 74.8–143.2) for SqCC, 111.3 (95% CI: 69.8–177.5) for SCLC and 21.9 (95% CI: 16.6–29.0) for AdCa. In women, the corresponding ORs were 62.7 (95% CI: 31.5–124.6), 108.6 (95% CI: 50.7–232.8) and 16.8 (95% CI: 9.2–30.6), respectively. Although ORs started to decline soon after quitting, they did not fully return to the baseline risk of never smokers even 35 years after cessation. The major result that smoking exerted a steeper risk gradient on SqCC and SCLC than on AdCa is in line with previous population data and biological understanding of lung cancer development.