We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC–MS/MS and GC–MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 μg/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 μg/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems. Several UV-filters from cosmetics and materials protection occur in rivers and EHMC accumulates in biota.
This paper describes the development of a multi-residue method for the determination of 36 emerging organic pollutants (26 biocides, 5 UV-filters and 5 benzothiazoles) in raw and treated wastewater, activated sludge and surface water using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The target analytes were enriched from water samples adjusted to pH 6 by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and eluted with a mixture of methanol and acetone (60/40, v/v). Extraction of freeze-dried sludge samples was accomplished by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture of methanol and water (50/50, v/v) as extraction solvent followed by SPE. LC–tandem MS detection was compared using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive and negative ionization mode. ESI exhibited strong ion suppression for most target analytes, while APCI was generally less susceptible to ion suppression but partially leading to ion enhancement of up to a factor of 10. In general, matrix effects could be compensated using stable isotope-labeled surrogate standards, indicated by relative recoveries ranging from 70% to 130%. In wastewater, activated sludge and surface water up to 33 analytes were detected. Maximum concentrations up to 5.1 and 3.9 μg L were found in raw wastewater for the water-soluble UV-filters benzophenone-4 (BZP-4) and phenylbenz-imidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), respectively. For the first time, the anti-dandruff climbazole was detected in raw wastewater and in activated sludge with concentrations as high as 1.4 μg L and 1.2 μg g TSS , respectively. Activated sludge is obviously a sink for four benzothiazoles and two isothiazolones, as concentrations were detected in activated sludge between 120 ng g TSS (2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, OIT) to 330 ng g TSS (benzothiazole-2-sulfonic acid, BTSA).
A new analytical method for the determination of four hydroxylated benzophenone UV filters (i.e. 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (DHB), 2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (DHMB) and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (THB)) in sea water samples is presented. The method is based on dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) determination. The variables involved in the DLLME process were studied. Under optimized conditions, 1000 μL of acetone (disperser solvent) containing 60 μL of chloroform (extraction solvent) were injected into 5 mL of aqueous sample adjusted to pH 4 and containing 10% NaCl. Before injecting into the GC–MS system, the DLLME extracts were evaporated under an air stream and then reconstituted with N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), thus allowing the target analytes to be converted into their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The best conditions for the derivatization reaction were 75 °C and 30 min. High enrichment factors for all the target analytes (ranging from 58 to 64) and good repeatability (RSD around 6%) were obtained. The limits of detection were in the range of 32–50 ng L , depending on the analyte. The recoveries obtained by using the proposed DLLME–GC–MS method evidenced the presence of matrix effects for some of the target analytes, and thereby the standard addition calibration method was employed. Finally, the validated method was applied to the analysis of sea water samples.
A user-friendly and inexpensive ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction (IL-SDME) procedure has been developed to preconcentrate trace amounts of six typical UV filters extensively used in cosmetic products (i.e., 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, isoamyl 4-methoxycinnamate, 3-(4′-methylbenzylidene)camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate and 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate) from surface water samples prior to analysis by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). A two-stage multivariate optimization approach was developed by means of a Plackett–Burman design for screening and selecting the significant variables involved in the SDME procedure, which were later optimized by means of a circumscribed central composite design. The studied variables were drop volume, sample volume, agitation speed, ionic strength, extraction time and ethanol quantity. Owing to particularities, ionic liquid type and pH of the sample were optimized separately. Under optimized experimental conditions (i.e., 10 μL of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 20 mL of sample containing 1% (v/v) ethanol and NaCl free adjusted to pH 2, 37 min extraction time and 1300 rpm agitation speed) enrichment factors up to ca. 100-fold were obtained depending on the target analyte. The method gave good levels of repeatability with relative standard deviations varying between 2.8 and 8.8% ( = 6). Limits of detection were found in the low μg L range, varying between 0.06 and 3.0 μg L depending on the target analyte. Recovery studies from different types of surface water samples collected during the winter period, which were analysed and confirmed free of all target analytes, ranged between 92 and 115%, showing that the matrix had a negligible effect upon extraction. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of different water samples (taken from two beaches, two swimming pools and a river) collected during the summer period.
A simple, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of four UV filters and five polycyclic musks (PCMs) in aqueous samples was developed by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS). The operating conditions affecting the performance of SPME-GC–MS, including fiber thickness, desorption time, pH, salinity, extraction time and temperature have been carefully studied. Under optimum conditions (30 μm PDMS fiber, 7 min desorption time, pH 7, 10% NaCl, 90 min extraction time at 24 °C), the correlation coefficients ( ) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.2 to 9.6 ng L and 0.7 to 32.0 ng L , respectively. The developed procedure was applied to the determinations of four UV filters and five PCMs in river water samples and internal standard was used for calibration to compensate the matrix effect. Good relative recoveries were obtained for spiked river water at low, medium and high levels. The proposed SPME method was compared with traditional SPE procedure and the results found in river water using both methods were in the same order of magnitude and both are quite agreeable.
UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation. The widespread occurrence of UV-filter residues in aquatic systems has been reported, but still little is known about their environmental effects. Some of these compounds negatively interact with the hormone system of fish, resulting in decreased fecundity and reproduction. Here we report on acute and chronic effects of UV-filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene-camphor) (4MBC), 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-4 (BP4) on . The acute toxicity increased with log of the compound. The LC50 values (48 h) of 4MBC, EHMC, BP3 and BP4 were 0.56, 0.29, 1.9 and 50 mg/L, respectively. A tentative preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) based on a limited set of data indicates that individual UV-filters should undergo further ecotoxicological analysis, as an environmental risk cannot be ruled out. Consequently new data on the environmental occurrence and the effects of UV-filters are needed for a more accurate ERA. When regarded as a mixture occurring in surface waters they may pose a risk for sensitive aquatic organisms.
The performance of the dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique for the determination of eight UV filters and a structurally related personal care species, benzyl salicylate (BzS), in environmental water samples is evaluated. After extraction, analytes were determined by gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Parameters potentially affecting the performance of the sample preparation method (sample pH, ionic strength, type and volume of dispersant and extractant solvents) were systematically investigated using both multi- and univariant optimization strategies. Under final working conditions, analytes were extracted from 10 mL water samples by addition of 1 mL of acetone (dispersant) containing 60 μL of chlorobenzene (extractant), without modifying either the pH or the ionic strength of the sample. Limits of quantification (LOQs) between 2 and 14 ng L−1, inter-day variability (evaluated with relative standard deviations, RSDs) from 9% to 14% and good linearity up to concentrations of 10,000 ng L−1 were obtained. Moreover, the efficiency of the extraction was scarcely affected by the type of water sample. With the only exception of 2-ethylhexyl-p-dimethylaminobenzoate (EHPABA), compounds were found in environmental water samples at concentrations between 6 ± 1 ng L−1 and 26 ± 2 ng mL−1. Figure 1 GC-MS chromatogram corresponding to a spiked (50 ng L-1) ultrapure water sample
Stir-bar-sorptive extraction (SBSE) with liquid desorption (LD) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–(ESI)MS–MS) were used for analysis of six personal care products in environmental water: four UV filters (2,2-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, benzophenone-3, octocrylene, and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid) and two antimicrobial agents (triclocarban and triclosan). Experimental conditions that affect SBSE-LD sorption efficiency (extraction time and temperature, sample pH, and ionic strength) and desorption efficiency (solvent, temperature, and time) were optimized. The method proved to be sensitive—a 50-mL sample was used to determine these compounds in environmental waters at trace levels. The detection limits of the analytical method were 2.5 ng L−1 for river water and 5–10 ng L−1 for effluent and influent sewage water. In river waters, benzophenone-3 was found at levels from 6 ng L−1 to 28 ng L−1 and triclosan at levels
A screening method for analyzing environmental waters contaminated with UV filters using direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was developed. To demonstrate the suitability of DART-MS a test set of seven organic UV filters, namely benzophenone-3 (BP-3), ethylhexyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoate (OD-PABA), 4-t-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BM-DBM), homo-methyl salicylate (HMS), 2-(ethylhexyl) salicylate (EHS), octocrylene (OC), and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), was defined. In the first step, standard solutions of the analytes prepared in methanol were investigated in order to determine optimum parameters for the DART-MS. Because of the very low concentrations of UV filters expected in environmental water samples, a pre-concentration step using stir bar sorptive extraction was performed. DART-MS allows the direct, simple and rapid semi-quantitative analysis of the analytes enriched on the surface of the polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bars. The optimized method provided calibration curves with correlation coefficients R>0.959, repeatability from 5% (for 4-MBC) to 30% (for BM-DBM) relative standard deviation and limits of detection lower than 40 ng L-1 for all analytes. Finally, real lake water samples from locations with typical leisure activities were analyzed. Results obtained with the developed DART-MS method were cross-checked by confirmatory analysis using thermodesorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). Thereby, it could be demonstrated that both analytical methods provide comparable concentrations for the UV filters in the lake water samples.