Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely distributed and persistent in the environment and in wildlife, and it has the potential for developmental toxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the proteins that are differentially expressed in zebrafish embryos exposed to 0.5 mg/l PFOS until 192 h postfertilization. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that 69 proteins showed altered expression in the treatment group compared to the control group with either increase or decrease in expression levels (more than twofold difference). Of the 69 spots corresponding to the proteins with altered expression, 38 were selected and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/TOF) analysis; 18 proteins were identified in this analysis. These proteins can be categorized into diverse functional classes such as detoxification, energy metabolism, lipid transport/steroid metabolic process, cell structure, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overall, proteomic analysis using zebrafish embryos serves as an in vivo model in environmental risk assessment and provides insight into the molecular events in PFOS-induced developmental toxicity.
The objective of this study is to conduct a bibliometric analysis of all biological invasions-related publications in the Science Citation Index (SCI) from 1991 to 2007. The indicator citation per publication (CPP) was used to evaluate the impact of articles, journals, and institutions. In the 3323 articles published in 521 journals, 7261 authors from 1905 institutions of 100 countries participated. As the most productive country of biological invasions research, the US will benefit from more collaboration between institutions, countries, and continents. In addition, analysis of keywords was applied to reveal research trends.
A novel gene-K23, differentially expressed in cross-subfamily cloned embryos, was isolated by RACE-PCR technique. It had 2580 base pairs (bp) in length, with a 1,425 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 474 amino acids (aa). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that K23 had 22 phosphorylation sites, but it had no signal peptides. Developmental expression analysis in zebrafish showed that K23 transcripts were maternally expressed in ovum and the amount of K23 transcripts increased gradually from zygote to pharyngula period. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that K23 protein was homogeneously distributed both in nuclei and cytoplasm. Taken together, our findings indicate that K23 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.
An out-of-Africa dispersal route has been proposed for many organisms, including modern man. However, counter examples of in-to-Africa dispersal routes are less common. In the present article, the phylogenetic relationships within the Labeoninae, a subfamily of cyprinid fishes distributed in Asia and Africa, were analyzed to investigate the biogeographic processes governing the modern distribution of these Asian and African cyprinids. The mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene was used as a molecular marker. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the subfamily Labeoninae is a monophyletic group, with some Asian labeonins located at the basal position. Two subclades were found that contained both African and Asian species, which highlighted a need for further biogeographic analysis. Based on this analysis, it is proposed that the centre of origin of the Labeoninae was in East Asia. Molecular clock estimation suggests that the Labeoninae arose by the Early Miocene (similar to 23 MYA) during the period of the second Tibetan uplift. Subsequently, two dispersal events of labeonins from Asia into Africa occured in the Early Miocene (similar to 20 MYA) and Late Miocene (similar to 9 MYA) and serve as examples counter to out-of-Africa dispersal.