The phylogenetic relationships within the family Penaeidae are examined based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of 30 species from 20 genera. The analysis generally supports the three- tribe scheme proposed by Burkenroad ( 1983) but it is not consistent with the five- group classification of Kubo ( 1949). Three clades are resolved: ( Penaeus sensu stricto + Fenneropenaeus + Litopenaeus + Farfantepenaeus + Marsupenaeus + Melicertus + Funchalia + Heteropenaeus), ( Metapenaeus + Parapenaeopsis + Xiphopenaeus + Rimapenaeus + Megokris + Trachysalambria) and ( Metapenaeopsis + Penaeopsis + Parapenaeus), corresponding to the Penaeini, Trachypenaeini and Parapenaeini respectively, while the affinities of Atypopenaeus and Trachypenaeopsis are obscure. The molecular data support that Miyadiella represents the juvenile stage of Atypopenaeus. Within the Trachypenaeini, Trachypenaeus sensu lato is clearly paraphyletic, while the monophyly of Penaeus sensu lato in the Penaeini is questionable.
Procypris rabaudi (Tchang) is a cyprinid fish endermic to middle and upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Besides in main stream and large tributaries, there exists an early matured, small-sized ecological type in a small tributary, Tang River. In this study, mitochondrial DNA cytochrome h (cyt b) gene sequence analysis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were performed to investigate the differentiation of the Tang River population from the Mudong reach population of the Yangtze River, with the purpose of conservation and exploitation of this fish. In the 1140 bps of cyt b gene sequence surveyed, 20 sites were found polymorphic, which defined 23 haplotypes. Among them, four haplotypes accounted for 54.4% of all individuals, while population-specific haplotypes occurred in low frequencies. Analysis of molecular variation on cyt b data revealed no significant partition existing between Tang River population and Mudong reach population. Analyses of 132 RAPD loci suggested that genetic variation between populations was significant, though values of different F-ST were not very high. The results revealed low genetic diversity and the beginning of population differentiation, suggesting that Tang River population should be designated as a separate Management Unit.
A PCR survey for Sox genes in a young tetraploid fish Tor douronensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) was performed to access the evolutionary fates of important functional genes after genome duplication caused by polyploidization event. Totally 13 Sox genes were obtained in Tor douronensis, which represent SoxB, SoxC and SoxE groups. Phylogenetic analysis of Sox genes in Tor douronensis provided evidence for fish-specific genome duplication, and suggested that Sox19 might be a teleost specific Sox gene member. Sequence analysis revealed most of the nucleotide substitutions between duplicated copies of Sox genes caused by tetraploidization event or their orthologues in other species are silent substitutions. It would appear that the sequences are under purifying selective pressure, strongly suggesting that they represent functional genes and supporting selection against all null allele at either of two duplicated loci of Sox4a, Sox9a and Sox9b. Surprising variations of the intron length and similarities of two duplicated copies of Sox9a and Sox9b, suggest that Tor douronensis might be an allotetraploidy.
The assemblage of oligochaetes in the Liangzi Lake District, located in middle reaches of the Changjiang River, was studied from May to August, 2001. To establish species composition, richness, and abundance and detect the influence of environmental variables on oligochaete distributional patterns, 45 localities were sampled. All total, 20 species belonging to the families Naididae (eight species), Tubificidae (11 species), and Lumbriculidae (one species) were found. Branchiura sowerbyi, Tubifex sp. 1, and Aulodrilus pluriseta were the dominant species and contributed nearly 70% of the total abundance. The 45 sampling sites were separated into three groups based on composition and relative abundance of benthic oligochaete communities using two-way indictor species analysis associated with detrended correspondence analysis. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that two plant variables (total plant cover and total submersed macrophyte biomass) were strongly correlated with the faunal gradient (p < 0.05). Other predicator variables were water depth and total nitrogen.
A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay method based on gold nanoparticles was developed for the detection of microcystins (MCs). The immunoassay included three main steps: indirect competitive immunoreaction, oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticles, and indirect determination for MCs with Au3+-catalysed luminol chemiluminesent system. The method has a wide working range (0.05-10 mu g L-1, r(2) = 0.9914), the limit of detection was determined to be 0.024 mu g L-1, which is much lower than the World Health Organization's proposed guidelines (1 mu g L-1) for drinking-water. The proposed method was applied to MC analysis in natural water and fish tissue samples, and most results in the proposed method were in agreement with the conventional indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, which indicated that the new chemiluminescent immunoassay was sensitive, reliable, and suitable for MC analysis in natural water and fish tissue samples.
Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) plays an important rote in interferon-induced antiviral responses, and is also involved in intracellular signaling pathways, including the apoptosis, proliferation, and transcription pathways. In the present study, a PKR-like gene was cloned and characterized from rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. The full length of the rare minnow PKR-like (GrPKZ) cDNA is 1946 bp in Length and encodes a polypeptide of 503 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 57,355 Da and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.83. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the mature peptide contains two Zalpha domains and one S_TKc domain, and is most similar to the crucian carp (Carassius auratus) PKR-like amino acid sequence with an identity of 77%. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that GrPKZ mRNA expression is at low levels in gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle and spleen tissues in healthy animals and up-regulated by viruses and bacteria. After being infected by grass carp reovirus, GrPKZ expression was up-regulated from 24 h post-injection and lasted until the fish became moribund (P < 0.05). Following infection with Aeromonas hydrophila, GrPKZ transcripts were induced at 24 h post-injection (P < 0.05) and returned to control levels at 120 h post-injection. These data imply that GrPKZ is involved in antiviral defense and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in bacterial infection. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
m Background: Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results: A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp) in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa). Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion: Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.
The seasonal variations of estrogenic compounds and the estrogenicities of influent and effluent were investigated by OF chemical analysis and in vitro assay in a municipal sewage treatment plant in Wuhan (China). The levels of eight estrogenic compounds, including 17 beta-estradiol (E-2) estrone (E-1), estriol (E-3) diethylstilbestrol (DES), 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol (NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and bisphenol A (BPA), were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total estrogenic activity of sewage was quantitatively assessed using primary cultured hepatocytes of male Megalobrama amblycephala Yih using vitellogenin as a biomarker. The E-2 equivalents (EEQs) obtained from the chemical analysis were consistent with those measured by bioassay. The natural (E-1, E-2, and E-3) and synthetic (DES) estrogens, as well as NP, were the main contributors of the total EEQs of influent and effluent in the present study. The levels of natural estrogens E-1 and E-3 in the influent and effluent were higher in winter than in summer, whereas the situation for NP and OP was the reverse. The levels of E-2, DES, and BPA varied little among different seasons. 17 alpha-Ethinylestradiol was not detected in the influent and effluent. The estrogenicities of the influent and of the primary and secondary effluents were all higher in summer than in winter. Estrogenic activities in winter mainly originated from natural (E-1, E-2, and E-3) and synthetic (DES) estrogens, whereas the increase of EEQs in summer was contributed by NP The results from chemical analysis and bioassay demonstrate that estrogenic compounds cannot be entirely removed by the existing sewage treatment process, which should be further improved to protect aquatic ecosystems and human health.