Complement-mediated killing of pathogens through lytic pathway is an important effector mechanism of innate immune response. C9 is the ninth member of complement components, creating the membrane attack complex (MAC). In the present study, a putative cDNA sequence encoding the 650 amino acids of C9 and its genomic organization were identified in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp C9 (gcC9) showed 48% and 38.5% identity to Japanese flounder and human C9, respectively. Domain search revealed that gcC9 contains a LDL receptor domain, an EGF precursor domain, a MACPF domain and two TSP domain located in the N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcC9 is clustered in a same clade with Japanese flounder, pufferfish and rainbow trout C9. The gcC9 gene consists of 11 exons with 10 introns, spacing over approximately 7 kb of genomic sequence. Analysis of gcC9 promoter region revealed the presence of a TATA box and some putative transcription factor such as C/EBP, HSF, NF-AT, CHOP-C, HNF-3B, GATA-2, IK-2, EVI- 1, AP-1, CP2 and OCT-1 binding sites. The first intron region contains C/EBPb, HFH-1 and Oct-1 binding sites. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the mRNA and protein of gcC9 gene have similar expression patterns, being constitutively expressed in all organs examined of healthy fish, with the highest level in hepatopancreas. By real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, gcC9 transcripts were significantly up-regulated in head kidney, spleen, hepatopancreas and down-regulated in intestine from inactivated fish bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare-stimulated fish, demonstrating the role of C9 in immune response. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gobiocypris rarus, a small, native cyprinid fish, is currently widely used in research on fish pathology, genetics, toxicology, embryology, and physiology in China. To develop this species as a model laboratory animal, inbred strains have been successfully created. In this study, to explore a method to discriminate inbred strains and evaluate inbreeding effects, morphological variation among three wild populations and three inbred stocks of G. rarus was investigated by the multivariate analysis of eight meristic and 30 morphometric characters. Tiny intraspecific variations in meristic characters were found, but these were not effective for population distinction. Stepwise discriminant analysis and cluster analysis of conventional measures and truss network data showed considerabe divergence among populations, especially between wild populations and inbred stocks. The average discriminant accuracy for all populations was 82.1% based on conventional measures and 86.4% based on truss data, whereas the discriminant accuracy for inbred strains was much higher. These results suggested that multivariate analyses of morphometric characters are an effective method for discriminating inbred strains of G. rarus. Morphological differences between wild populations and inbred strains appear to result from both genetic differences and environmental factors. Thirteen characters, extracted from stepwise discriminant analysis, played important roles in morphological differentiation. These characters were mainly measures related to body depth and head size.
The purpose of the research is to study the seasonal succession of protozoa community and the effect of water quality on the protozoa community to characterize biochemical processes occurring at a eutrophic Lake Donghu, a large shallow lake in Wuhan City, China. Samples of protozoa communities were obtained monthly at three stations by PFU (polyurethane foam unit) method over a year. Synchronously, water samples also were taken from the stations for the water chemical quality analysis. Six major variables were examined in a principal component analysis (PCA), which indicate the fast changes of water quality in this station I and less within-year variation and a comparatively stable water quality in stations II and III. The community data were analyzed using multivariate techniques, and we show that clusters are rather mixed and poorly separated, suggesting that the community structure is changing gradually, giving a slight merging of clusters form the summer to the autumn and the autumn to the winter. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to infer the relationship between water quality variables and phytoplankton community structure, which changed substantially over the survey period. From the analysis of cluster and CCA, coupled by community pollution value (CPV), it is concluded that the key factors driving the change in protozoa community composition in Lake Donghu was water qualities rather than seasons. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The cDNA encoding grass carp intelectin was isolated from a head kidney cDNA library, and termed gcIntL. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcIntL consists of 318 amino acids, and about 55% identical and 74% similar to human intelectin, which is a new type of lectin recognizing galactofuranose, and plays a role in the recognition of bacteria-specific components in animal hosts. The gcIntL gene consists of seven exons and six introns, spacing over approximately 3 kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the gcIntL formed a clade with Danio rerio intelectin and 35 kDa serum lectin. By real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis, gcIntL transcripts were significantly induced in head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, and intestine from LPS-stimulated fish. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the mRNA and protein of gcIntL gene have the same expression pattern, and both were detected in brain, gill, intestine, head kidney, trunk kidney, spleen, and heart. Furthermore, gcIntL protein could be detected in gill, intestine, trunk kidney, head kidney, spleen, heart, and brain including medulla oblongata and optic lobe, as determined by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of intelectin expression pattern in fish, and of recombinant gcIntL and polyclonal antibody against gcIntL. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Midkine (Mdk) genes have been revealed to have different expression patterns in vertebrates and therefore, additional studies on Mdk expression patterns are required in more species. In this study, CagMdkb has been cloned and characterized from a SMART cDNA library of 10-somite stage embryos of Carassius auratus gibelio. Its full length cDNA is 1091 bp and encodes a sequence of 147 amino acids, which shows 97.3% identity to zebrafish Mdkb on the amino acid level. RT-PCR analysis reveals that CagMdkb is first transcribed in gastrula embryos and maintains a relatively stable expression level during subsequent embryogenesis. Western blot analysis reveals a 19 kDa maternal CagMdkb protein band and the zygotic CagMdkb protein is expressed from gastrula stage. At around 10 somite stage, the 19 kDa CagMdkb is processed to another protein band of about 17 kDa, which might be the secreted form with the 21-residue signal peptide removed. With immunofluorescence analysis, maternal CagMdkb protein was found to be localized in each blastamere cell of early embryos. The zygotic CagMdkb positive fluorescence signal was detected from a pair of large neurons at 18-somite stage. At the later stages, CagMdkb protein was also extended to numerous small neurons in the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain, as well as to nerve fibers in the spinal cord. Co-localization with 3A10 antibody revealed CagMdkb immunoreactivity on developing Mauthner neurons, a member of reticulospinal neurons. In addition, ectopic expression of CagMdkb in early embryos of gibel carp and zebrafish suppressed head formation and CagMdkb function was found to depend on secretory activity. All these findings indicate that CagMdkb plays an important role in neural development during gibel carp embryogenesis and there is functional conservation of Mdkb in fish head formation.