Using isothermal microcalorimetry, the growth power-time curves of three strains of Tetrahymena were determined at 28 degrees C. Their Euclidean distances and cluster analysis diagram were obtained by using two thermokinetic parameters (r and Q(log)), which showed that T. thermophila BF1 and T. thermophila BF5 had a closer relationship. Compared with the single molecular biomarker (ITS1) method, microcalorimetry wasmaybe a simpler, more sensitive andmore economic technique in the phylogenetic studies of Tetrahymena species.
RP-HPLC analysis for low molecular weight organic acids in soil solution has been optimized. An Atlantis (TM) C-18 column was used for the analyses. An optimal determination for eleven organic acids in soil solution was found at room temperature (25 degrees C) and 220 nm detection wavelength, with a mobile phase of 10 mM KH2PO4 -CH3OH (955, pH 2.7), a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and 10 mu L sample size. The detection limits ranged 3.2-619 ng/mL, the coefficients of variation ranged 1.3-4.6%, and the recoveries ranged 95.6-106.3% for soil solution with standard addition on the optimal conditions proposed.
TRAIL (Apo2 ligand) described as a type II transmembrame protein belonging to the TNF superfamily can induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of cell types. In the present study, a putative cDNA sequence encoding the 299 amino acids of TRAIL (GC-TRAIL) and its genomic organization were identified in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The predicted GC-TRAIL sequence showed 44 and 41% identities to chicken and human TRAILs, respectively. In a domain search, a tumor necrosis factor homology domain (THD) was identified in the C-terminal portion of TRAILs. The GC-TRAIL gene consists of five exons, with four intervening introns, spaced over approximately 4 kb of genomic sequence. Analysis of GC-TRAlL promoter region revealed the presence of a number of putative transcription factor binding sites, such as Sp1, NF-kappaB, AP-1, GATA, NFAT, HNF, STAT, P53 and IRFI sequences which are important for the expression of other TNF family members. Phylogenetic analysis placed GC-TRAIL and the putative zebrafish (Danio rerio) TRAIL obtained from searching the zebrafish database into one separate cluster near mammalian TRAIL genes, but apart from the reported zebrafish TRAIL-like protein, indicating that the GC-TRAIL is an authentic fish TRAIL. Expression analysis revealed that GC-TRAIL is expressed in many tissues, such as in gills, liver, trunk kidney, head kidney, intestine and spleen. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.